The unescapable nature of the culture is “how things are done around here” has an important impact on the organizational operations and performances of the staff. An unproductive and more traditional culture will create lack of suppleness for the approval of an organizational challenge. 4.2.2 MAINTAINING STABILITY The formal organizational structure with a divided work load which gives insufficient definition of duties and responsibilities assigned with rules, procedures and working conditions will increase the resistance of employees for organizational change. A machine-like governmental organizational structure is very resistant for organizational change. Resistance to change, Management and Organizational behavior, 2005, p. 914 Example: cloke and Goldsmith refer to.
He ignored the mercantilism which attempt to regulate human as well as market functions. He stressed about the “Invisible Hand”, an automatic mechanism that markets moves toward. He said that government should not intervene to the economy because this intervention was more costly and destroy the smooth function of the economy. According to Smith government has a small role in the society. That is the government should involve to the defence, civil justice and public works.
To comprehend Marx's commitment to the advancement of cutting edge social hypothesis, the need to think about and comprehend the philosophical thoughts that existed before Marxism remains a sine qua non. This is on account of it is unrealistic to separate traditional Marxism from its genuine philosophical embodiment. The former logicians/schools of musings before Marxism incorporate English established political economy, French socialism and German belief system or German reasoning. Marx saw societal advancement in mankind's history through class battle. The thought of argumentative realism centres, in some sense, on the societal battle between the decision financial class and the oppressed average workers.
He argues that the resource mobilization theory (RMT) has developed the sophisticated analysis of the mechanics of collective action, of the barriers to it and also the conditions under which it can operate. He is very much concerned about the theoretical underpinning of the RMT and argues that although it help to understand the organizational dilemmas facing social movements but its association from economic models of human agency makes it handicapped, and it also do not say much about the content and context of social movement activity. He point out the loophole in the RMT and says RMT has a narrow and impoverished interpretation of human motivation which reduces it to Weberian sense of instrumental rationality (forms of action as instrumental
Does Max Weber’s characterisation of modern bureaucracy help us in comprehending the workings of present day rational-legal organizations? Explain taking examples. Max Weber, the German sociologist and political economist argued that urban administration is inevitably bureaucratic, replacing the preceding feudal culture in western societies. Being the fountainhead in the field, he has lead us to understand the presence of the system in not only in the government and army, but also in other contemporary institutions such as large-scale businesses, industries, trade networks, unions, the church, educational setups etc. The indispensability of the bureaucracy as aforementioned is based on the Weberian conceptualization of ‘rationalization’ as mentioned in his book, Economy and Society .
We emphasize the need to understand project shaping as a techno-social process which takes megaprojects from concept to reality. The third polar perspective is grounded on theorizations made by researchers 'in the air' that governance mechanisms in megaprojects are different from that in conventional projects. However, the accounts have failed to provide clarity and empirical evidence on how governance mechanisms in megaprojects are shaped idiosyncratically within the megaproject context as 'institutional exceptions'. The fourth polar perspective is grounded on instrumental rationality of megaproject management and prescribe structural instruments as solutions to megaproject challenges. We argue that pre-design governance mechanisms may not work as a 'cookie cutter' in idiosyncratically context of megaprojects.
Ultimately, a civil serve institution that is centralised with power can bring about negative effects of corruption, lack of accountability and the lack of professionalism with regards to the officials recruitment processes. As a result, Nigeria then introduced reforms that are aimed at improving the effectiveness as well as efficiency of civil service through reforms that will allow a more results oriented and modern civil service as well as successive governments.This paper will critique Nigeria’s civil service institutions in sections of its’ CSI’s historical context in comparison to clear defined theories, namely: Institutional Rationalism, Institutional Behavior as well as the Institutional Reform used interchangeably with New Public Management. Thus, in doing so, not only will a number of critiques regarding the Nigerian institutions be identifies, but allow a general description of how civil service institutions are organize in order to
Privatization is different with nationalism, which is process of increasing government controls and involvement in economy. The implementation of privatisation requires that proper institutions be established in order to avoid practices that will result in inefficiencies and welfare losses. The implementation of privatisation in Malaysia may well have suffered from the lack of a well-defined institutional framework. The absence of any consideration for intentions that could have overseen the execution of privatisation led to the inappropriate implementation. This policy is proposed by Tun Dr. Mahathir when he publicized the government intention to apply on a privatization policies.
But the critical perspective says no, let us do away with those power structures and look at those individuals that are often overlooked in the organisation because of their status. From a critical perspective, those that are in powerful positions are seen as controlling and exploitative. So, the critical perspective wants to change the inequality they believe exists in the communication of organisational structures. From the interpretivist perspective, we look at finding explanations of why certain events, which might have been created by communication, occur. By doing so, interpretivists hope to find meaning to communication in the organisation.