He explained it as technically superior to all other forms of organization and hence indispensable to large, complex enterprises (Bendix, 1966). Bureaucracy may be considered with respect to two view points, namely, organizational framework and public choice approach. Public choice theories are concerned with bureaus and bureaucratic behaviours. They have the tendency of being individualistic, atomistic and economic in their assumptions. Organizational theory shows a preference for structure of holism and power.
As a consequence, Golding and Harriss (1996) claimed ‘‘between the political economic analyses of the postwar globalizing media industries and the more historically grounded discourse analyses of the globalizing myths of modernity remains a space, a historical examination of the practices imperialism institutionalized that carried the social and cultural infrastructure of modernity. In our epoch of high modernity, it has become easier to see imperialism as perhaps the core mover in shaping the world we now inhabit, as a global carrier of the social practices of ‘modernity’ in all its manifestations’’ (p, 50). 1.3. Herbert Schiller’s Theory of Communication and Cultural Domination: Many academics and thinkers give various definitions to the
It is not simply a book about the history of cotton as a commodity. Rather, it is a book about how cotton transformed the global economy, and how Europe came to replace Asia as the new manufacturing powerhouse with the industrial revolution. The book also traces the role cotton played in bridging the East and the West while providing a subtle critique to our traditional way of looking at history – through the Western lens. In that
According to political scientists and sociologists, the basic idea of ‘imperialism’ is the expansion of territory or conquests of foreign lands. But the Marxist understanding of ‘imperialism’ evaluates general changes in the socio-economic and political spheres of the capitalist state and the implication of the bourgeoisie class on the course of its history. The word Imperialism derives its roots from the latin word ‘imperium’ which means ‘to command’ .The general understanding of the word Imperialism is that it is a policy that is used by one nation over another to exercise power on the grounds of ownership of resources, settlements, annexations etc. It is almost synonymous to “colonialism” where one sovereign power transfers its population
Urban Approach of Contemporary Urban Theorists Contemporary urban theorists have concentrated on finding the effects of state involvement on the market mechanism. They are seperated from the traditional approach of not assessing the location of the cities as a data and have strived to establish a link between the theory and the real life since these effects are reflected in the structure of urban space. While the city has been established, the concept of desire line has established an approach that takes account of the relationship between the housing and workplaces. After II. World War, the new political winds in the world have led to the development of different urban life approaches and different efforts of urban perspective.
The German sociologist Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which one can organize human activity, and that systematic processes and organized hierarchies were necessary to maintain order, maximize efficiency and eliminate favouritism. Weber also saw unrestrained bureaucracy as a threat to individual freedom, in which an increase in the bureaucratization of human life can trap individuals in an "iron cage" of rule-based, rational control. The structural features of bureaucracy Bureaucracy has been central to public administration. It is because the characteristic of bureaucracy make it behave in predictable way 1) Specialized jurisdiction, office, task and division of labour and authority regarding the achievement of organization goal 2) Hierarchy of authority to coordinate the activities of the specialized office and to integrate their jurisdiction authority. In the most rational bureaucratic design, the organization is handle by single individual.
The works of German sociologist Max Weber, are some of the most significant, controversial and influential works of the twentieth century. His most noted piece of work was on the thesis of the “Protestant ethic”, with the ideas of Protestantism, capitalism and bureaucracy. For Weber, rationality was the lead agent in the solid transformation of society from traditional to modern. He argued that modernity is about the unleashing of this dynamic of rationality; characterised by efficiency, calculability and accountability (McLennan, Manus and Spoonley, 2010). The attempt to control nature, individuals and society by calculating social life is seen in the ideas of Protestantism.
Democratization Political Science dates back to the time of Aristole, but modern political science is a product of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is the product of the political systems of Western Europe and North America and it is ultimately linked to the study of comparative politics. Modernization theory is the expression used for the transition from a traditional society to a modern society as it is found today in the West. It refers to the development or underdevelopment of countries as a model of financial and social development that explains global inequality in terms of differing levels of technological development among societies. What the theory suggests is that by introducing modern approaches to technology, agricultural production, industrialization and modern political institutions the underdeveloped countries will experience economic well-being and a general improvement of living standards.
Vijayawada is the largest City in Krishna district and is situated 80 Km to the west of Machlipatnam, the district headquarters and a major port during colonial rule. Krishna district, along with the rest of coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions, was part of the Madras Presidency before independence. It became part of an Andhra state in 1953 which merged with Telugu speaking areas of the former princely state of Hyderabad, to form Andhra Pradesh in 1956. 1.2 RAILWAYS: Vijayawada has the second largest as well as busiest railway station in India. It is located in Chennai to Delhi and Chennai to
What is of impressive import is the part that the State plays in enlarging this gorge. In the first essay, Bhaduri keeps up that in a globalized India, the welfare State has changed itself into the defender of the privileges of huge enterprises by marginalizing the poor majority, to support a model of corporate-led industrialization as the way to our economic development without questioning its relevance in the Indian