Marx’s ideas on this exploitation refers to a feudalistic driven society, where the performance of labour is over and above what is needed to produce goods consumed by the labourer. An example to sustain his theory is of when the exploiter ends up with a surplus. The proletariat or working class is therefore not paid the full value of what she or he produces, the rest is the surplus value which is the capitalist’s profits, and according to Marx known as the ‘unpaid labour of the working class’. The bourgeoisie force down wages of the proletariat to increase their own profits and this creates a more direct conflict between the classes and gives rise to the development of class consciousness in the working class. The working class, through trade unions and other struggles becomes conscious of itself as an exploited class.
Marx believed that creating jobs that required little skills opened the opportunity to vulnerable and easily replaced workers (as citied in Sernau, 2012, p.46). These different ideals were profound in modern capitalist economy because it shaped the workers of the industrial
Private property was such a large part of the upper classes life because they owned the means of production in their territory. This meant that the factories, mills, and many other industries-based businesses were owned by The Bourgeoisie, and The Proletariats then have to work as day laborers for The Bourgeoisie. In the 1859 Preface to a Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy, Marx begins with an immediate account of society's material need for all basic requirements; that could be shelter, food, etc. The general conclusion at which Marx arrives is, "In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness" (Pg.
The capitalist system, in its current conception, has fragmented the working conditions in which labour is produced (Wendling, 2009: 81). The de-industrialisation of many parts of the Western world and the rise of a mass of self-employed people have created a further intertwining of the interests of working people with the dominant class (Friedman, 2005: 51). In other words, in order to survive in the technologically-driven environment of the age of globalisation, the workers are impelled to accept the workings of capitalism, instead of opposing them (Marcuse, 2002: 21). In this context, it is possible to argue that Marxian view of alienation is useful in order to explain certain aspects of modern capitalism. However, Marxian theory fails to shed light on why the workers have not revolted against this state of affairs (Wood, 2004: 43).
When the modern capitalist society has emerged, capitalism has massively impacted on many social aspects. The system had led to the dissolution and to an end of the Feudal system during the Middle Ages. There are many political thoughts, which consisted of significant frameworks for reforming and making some new changes to the society. This essay will mainly focus on two main political ideologies and identify the differences between these two houses, which are Marx and Mussolini. First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days.
Throughout his life, Karl Marx has altered the way that he views labor and what labor means to society as well as the individual. We can see how in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof Karl Marx is still concerned about the laborers but is more focused on scientific notions and ideology as well as the economic components compared to what how he focuses on social aspects in The Alienation of Labor. The Alienation of Labor was written first, in 1844. The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof was written in 1867. Over the course of these twenty three years Marx began to shift his focus from what labor means to the individual to a more abstract distanced look at the capitalist system.
In capitalist and liberal democracies, since men cannot change their conditions whenever they want, men are obliged to continue the work that they first performed. In capitalist societies workers cannot choose the work they would like to perform, but they perform a job only because in this way they are securing a wage, whereas in communism workers can choose on a daily basis what type of work they would like to perform, and they can change it every day, since in communism there is no “exclusive sphere of activity”. (Marx, Karl. “The German Ideology.” Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Ed.
As we open Weber’s theory there were three areas of importance within the stratification of society. He looks at economic power, similar to Marx, but also adds in social status and party to this determination. With the three of these determinants, there becomes multiple possible positions within society in contrast to Marx and his ‘bipolar model’ (Giddens, 2013:486). Weber found more than the mere economic. He found this to be,”” naked” money power” and felt it did not recognise a basis to people’s social honour in society.
According to Marx, under capitalism the workers were isolated for four different reasons:- • The workers are labourers who do not own the means of production or the products they create which is why they are isolated from the product. • Under capitalism, the creativity of the workers is completely destroyed. They act as mere a machine which is why they are isolated from the production process. • In a capitalist society, the workers lose their ability to create and appreciate items of nature. All their senses are dulled or remain undeveloped because of the intense working conditions.
Moreover the new science built its own new independent force of power or authority and challenged the old theory and practices. Enlightenment thinkers believed in the abilities, capabilities, and the intellectual power of human beings. And they believed that human beings have the systematic knowledge of the nature. Enlightenment was the period of the advancement of science as well as the tremendous