In his most famous publication, Weber studies the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of contemporary capitalism. He accounts bureaucracy as a key feature in modern society. This is in no way a detailed account of Protestantism itself but instead an introduction to his later studies such as “The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism” or “The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism”. Weber argues that the “spirit” that defines capitalist ideas originates in the Protestant Reformation.
Weber argued that Protestantism is the greater contributor to the capitalist thought. As a reformation Protestantism preceded the continuous growth to the ideology of capitalism in Western Europe (Bell, 2012). This was evident as peopled worked for more money than needed and that the church got people to purchase forgiveness. The theologian French pastor John Calvin - the father of Protestant Reformation and well known for his doctrine of Predestination called Calvinism. Calvinism preached that the kingdom of heaven if for those who are successful, hardworking and good (Bell, 2012).
These are the traditions that were mentioned beforehand, that Catholic’s clung dearly to during the Counter Reformation. A few examples of these are the idea of purgatory, prayer to saints and priests in a hierarchy form. None of these conventions or beliefs are proven in the bible and Martin Luther therefore considered them a distraction from the centrality and importance of Christ. (Tarr 45) This is another reason why Lutheranism went to the bible for all answers.
However, with much corruption through the church, they were morphed into a scheme to take money from misguided Christians. One of the northern humanists, Martin Luther, began protesting this in 1517 (p. 333). Martin Luther’s biggest accomplishment concerning his protests of the Roman Catholic Church would probably be the posting of his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg (p. 334). This act of defiance against the church sparked the spread of protestantism.
Rauschenbusch took on what he called “the present crisis” wrought by the industrial revolution and the rise of modern capitalism, arguing that Christian civilization could no longer withstand the injustices of contemporary times—inequality, poverty, physical deprivation and hunger, worker abuses. He believed that desperate times required genuine moral leadership, and he sought to humanize capitalism by encouraging more direct action. He supported movements such as the settlement houses—urban community centers where low-income people could go for services and classes—as well as labor organizing and solidarity, and Christian volunteerism from preachers and groups like the YMCA and the Salvation
Identifying this capitalist spirit, a term which is somewhat subjective, was a remarkable shift away from the more deterministic doctrines of Marx and Durkheim. This capitalist spirit of asceticism, was said to come out of the Calvinist strand of Protestantism. Calvinism was unique from Catholicism, in that it was marked by the ‘extreme inhumanity’ (125) of belief in pre-destination. As a result of this doctrine the individual was tasked with offsetting their intense anxiety about the afterlife by looking for signs of their salvation. Weber quotes the sermons of Richard Baxter, who emphasises ‘hard, continuous bodily or mental labour’ (126) as ‘every hour lost is lost to labour for the glory of God’ (126).
The people believed their rights were being infringed upon concerning slavery and the property within man, resulting in a desire for secession as a revolutionary attempt to save their existing property within their slaves. Lincoln’s political religion denounced their argument and justification for secession by reawakening public sentiment. The rational principles of the revolution were turned to sentiment and this sentiment is the political religion in which Lincoln grounded his beliefs. It reminds the people that the bloodshed of the revolution was connected to the bloodshed of the Civil War. Political religion reminisces on the sacred principle of equality, which linked the Revolution and the Framing, altogether reawakening the public spirit and mind through the sentiment of the
Bunyan draws heavily from both Luther and Calvin 's ideas, and their influence is palpable in The Pilgrim 's Progress. One of the hallmarks of Reformation theology is that it articulates a system of justification by faith alone, as opposed to justification by good works, as the Catholic Church once encouraged. For Luther, faith in God and the gift of God 's freely given grace erased the sins of humanity, rather than good works or indulgences issued by the Church. Though Calvin is famous for his very strongly articulated doctrine of predestination, which states that God has already decided who will be saved and who will be damned, Luther 's theology can also be considered to be predestinarian, albeit more generous than Calvin 's definition. The question of election aside, both maintained that humanity 1had wholly fallen, and redemption was only possible through faith and God 's grace, which was made manifest in the Crucifixion, and continues to be bestowed on sinners.
Various religions have made a great turning point on European history. One of the most notable figures of European history, a German theologian and religious reformer named Martin Luther, had so much passion about his faith of God. This man leaves a mark on European history for having the courage to lead a revolution against the Catholic Church. He felt that the Catholic Church’s practices were impractical. Martin Luther made a great, positive impact as a religious leader during the Protestant Reformation by his successful achievements as a theologian, starting and spreading the Protestant Reformation to many parts in Europe, and creating his own Lutheran Church.
His 95 theses which propounded two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deed was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been advanced before, Martin Luther codified them at them at the moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by the Luther’s ideas. Luther’s writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West. His revolutionary ideas served as the catalyst for the eventual breaking away from the Catholic Church.
Marx ideology for meaning of life was inspired from the time and place he grew up and lived. Marx believed that culture, government, religion, politics, and laws are all structures. The base of the structure is made up of materials used for production. Changes in base would result in changes in the superstructure and who people view their life.
IV The Protestant Reformation A. Causes of the Reformation Rulers began to compete against the Church 's political power. Judges of the Church demanded that the leaders were dishonest about their money. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus recommended Church reform.
He does not believe in a God, stating that the church exists to “devalue nature and natural values” and claiming that these religious systems steal power, creating weakness in mankind (Nietzsche 34). He creates a primitive and selfish lifestyle as a model to compliment this new concept of inverted values. This lifestyle is based on the Hyperboreans, a mythical race that lives North of the Arctic Circle and exemplifies strength and vigor. Nietzsche believed in training people from a young age to maximize power to assert dominance and exude toughness because goodness was associated with everything that creates a feeling of power and, therefore, happiness. Straying away from this is the reason for man’s weakness, which he claims is equivalent to unhappiness and all that is considered bad.
Picture a life where every intricate detail of any trade took a large amount of time to do but it had to be done for the survival of the human kind. Now picture it’s the turn of the 20th century, everyone and everything in the united states was revolutionizing. Many inventions are being born and many machines are making these intricate jobs more effortless. Life before was merely a memory.