William T Cavanaugh (2008), wrote Being Consumed: Economics and Christian Desire which is a philosophical book, which focus on four (4) economic life matters that addresses the consumer culture within society. These four economic life matters are free market, consumerism, globalization and economic scarcity. In order for this topic to be discussed on a theological point of view, the author draws the reader’s attention to human life, the ends of life in God. The key question in every process is whether or not the transaction contributes to the flourishing of each person involved. In order to address these questions the author points to concrete examples of alternative economic practices in which Christians participate-: business, co-operatives, credit union, practices of consumption which marks the vision for Christian economic life. Cavanaugh (2008) calls the church to create and cultivate her own alternative culture informed
As a whole, during the Gilded Age “the middle and upper-middle class seemed to be becoming, in part as a result of its wartime experience, less sensitive to the suffering and hardship of the poor” (Ginzberg 207). Subsequently, “[m]iddle-class Protestantism became increasingly defensive of privilege, insensitive to the poor, and harsh towards efforts to change from within” (Ginzberg 207). In fact, “[m]any ministers came to endorse a corporate defense of property and expressed hostility to labor organizing” and it was believed that in no place “did the business spirit find greater favor than in the Protestant church” (Ginzberg 207). Similarly, Carter finds that the Gilded Age “was a time when the gospel of Christ was felt to be in full harmony with the Gospel of Wealth” (Ginzberg 207 fix citation). Had it been religion that shaped the morals of the people during the Gilded Age then the protestant church still would have reflected the same “self giving love seen in Christ” (Latourette 83) that christianity was built on. Instead, as those during the time period became consumed by business and affluence the morals encouraged by the church shifted to fit contemporary views. Thus, exemplifying that during the nineteenth century it was not religion that shaped the public's morals but was
The Columbian Exchange is a crucial part of history without which the world as we know it today would be a very different place. Its effects were rapid, global, dramatic, and permanent. It caused the entire world’s biographic, demographic, cultural, and economic standards to change, though whether that change was for better or worse is debatable.
As a preface, those who had stood by the side of the Roman Catholic Church had enough with this institution that sought nothing, but power. Church officials took the people’s pure desire for salvation and scammed them into buying it instead. Ignorance is regularly the cause of such manipulation. The Protestant Reformation was effective in promoting the progress of mankind when it came to faith. Although it proved to be troublesome, particularly because of the splitting of the church, it was beneficial for those in the future.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels express their major critiques and opinions on capitalism in their 1848 publication of The Communist Manifesto. Their critiques are based around the idea that capitalism is simply unfair, meaning that one class benefits significantly more than the rest. The class that benefits least from capitalism is the proletariats. This unintelligent labor class suffers from the capitalists dominance, and is unaware of the damage they are experiencing. George Orwell’s depiction of Boxer in his novel, Animal Farm, fits precisely into Marx and Engels’ negative critique of capitalism by representing a strong symbol for the proletariat class and succumbing to the powerful demands of the capitalists.
These principles can be seen throughout the writings of the political thinkers of the 1890’s and illuminate how this category of thought is familiar to the American life.
The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, had little to no influence when it was first published in 1848 for the Communist League. However, soon after Marx and Engel’s other writings on socialism became published it grew in popularity, and was considered a standard text of the time (Brians, 2006). With Marx’s radical ideas, and Engels’ thorough writing, they were able to convey how they were individual of the other socialists of the time and elaborate on their idea socialism and how it would inevitably be achieved. The three main ideas from The Communist Manifesto are class conflict, ephemeral capitalism, and inevitable revolution.
Christian Desire. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.). Being Consumed: Economics and Christian Desire deals with what Cavanaugh refers to as “the basic matters of economic life”, which is the free market, consumerism, globalization, and scarcity, as he aims to change the reader’s views on each of these topics. Cavanaugh also gives his argument both for and against each of these matters, which are often characterized by stories or comparisons which make his arguments and points a little easier to understand and a little clearer. Cavanaugh also answers few questions such as, are we for or against the free market? Should we not think of ourselves as a consumer? Are we for or againt globalization? How do we live in a world of scarce resources? And finally, when is a market free? (Loc.8 and 14). Cavanaugh anwers and addresses these issues within the “four brief chapters” of his book.
There were two types of work back then, salary work and piece work. The regular work paid $6 a week. Women weren’t treated as fairly as the men, either, and employees didn’t get much of a break. There were few machines, and light was limited. Working hours and the amount that these workers were paid was very unfair. It did so little for them.(Clara Lemlich document.) Because of this, things like the “Social Gospel” and “The Gospel of Wealth” were brought to people’s attention. “The Gospel of Wealth” was an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy, which is the desire to promote the welfare of others. It was expressed by the donations of money to good causes, by the rich. The idea was that each individual work for himself in gaining wealth. In the end, there would still be a concentration of wealth, but they would spread their wealth to the throughout the public, benefiting all, instead of money coming to all people in small amounts as suggested by communistic ideas.(The Gospel of Wealth document: Andrew
2. Identify at least two specific negative effects that Marx claims the rising bourgeoisie and capitalism have on nineteenth-century society.
). By, “1916 – Congress passes the Keating-Owen Act, which bans the interstate sale of any article produced with child labor (factory, cannery, and mine) and regulates the number of hours a child could work. The Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court two years later.”, and eight years later, in “1924 – Congress adopts a constitutional amendment barring child labor and sends the amendment out to be ratified by the state legislatures. Not enough states ratify the child labor amendment for it to become law.” (Reid Maki), different association, committees, and organizations like: The International Labour Organization, The Children’s Act for Responsible Employment (CARE), and The National Child Labor Committee, among others fought
In his most famous publication, Weber studies the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of contemporary capitalism. He accounts bureaucracy as a key feature in modern society. This is in no way a detailed account of Protestantism itself but instead an introduction to his later studies such as “The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism” or “The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism”. Weber argues that the “spirit” that defines capitalist ideas originates in the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation largely influences his work and he noted the shift in Europe’s economic centre following this, away from Catholic countries, for example France, towards protestant countries, for
Should todays Christians be pro or anti free market, pro or anti-globalization? How are we to survive in a modern world of scarcity? Theologian William Cavanaugh uses Christian resources to incisively address basic economic matters like the free market, consumer culture, globalization, and scarcity. Cavanaugh argues that we should not just accept these terms but rather enforce a Christian approach and way of living.
The liberal dream camp show that with virtues and ethics of markets, cooperation, freedom, and fostering creativity that markets are good and make people do good things. These organizations force people in a positive way to make choices to be economically sound but also good people. This idea can be seen in the quote, “Markets, then, not only produce economic harmony (the satisfaction of individuals’ desires and needs), they also create social harmony,” (Forcade and Healy 2007:287). This can be seen with how businesses have to interact with consumers to stay in-business. Popular theorist in this camp are Adam Smith and Von Mises. They both look at how the capitalism because it served a need and was the best option.
If Weber somehow came to know about the influence his theories wield in the field of management today, he would be more than bemused. For in his lifetime, Weber was revered more for his political thoughts than his theories in management. In fact, Max Weber was part of a committee setup to draft the constitution of the Weimer Republic. Weber’s rise to prominence in the field of management is credited to two of his books: The Rise of Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he linked the Calvinist morality (his mother was a staunch Calvinist) to capitalism and The Theory of Social and Economic