The Valley was surrounded by high mountains protecting them from any enemies, freshwater from the mountains, marshy lakes that provided them with food, plants, salt and also water for cultivation and agriculture (Nicoletta Maestri, “Aztec Origins and the Founding of TenochtitlÃ¡n - Aztec Tenochtitlan”). About 1250 AD when the Aztecs finally settled and created Teotihuacan, the great city started to grow. It gained so much power that it was the most powerful city in the whole empire. The Aztecs were racing to the height of their success and knowledge. They developed new concepts and number systems.
Pachacutec, the Great Emperor of the Inca Empire Nowadays, we are speaking at an international level of the greatness and mystery that Machu Picchu represents, considered a monument of humanity. Likewise, Machu Picchu is considered a monument to the greatness of the Inca Empire whose history, culture, agriculture, monumental military and religious constructions, and a great legacy to humanity surprise many of us. But who was the ruler who made this kingdom a great empire? His name was Cusi Yupanqui, later called Pachacutec, he was the ninth ruler of the Inca state and he was who turned it from a simple kingdom into a great empire: the Tahuantinsuyo. He was a son of the Inca Wiracocha, and although he was not his direct heir, he was designated Wiracocha’s successor after defending the imperial city of Cuzco and defeating, the Chancas army, which tried to conquer them, while Wiracocha and his son Urco, the crown prince, had fled of the City of Cuzco.
When Cortes and his men first arrived on the island of Cozumel in 1519, they were unaware that a complex and advanced civilization was just beyond the shores of Mexico. Although, as stated, the Aztecs were a rather advanced civilization, when compared to the Spaniards that invaded their city, they were lacking in technology. Cortes used this to his advantage, stunning the natives with displays of cavalry and horses, as he
The first meeting between Cortés and Montezuma are described two different ways as “The True History of the Conquest of New Spain” by Bernal Díaz excerpt notes “When Cortés was told that the Great Montezuma was approaching, and he saw him coming, he dismounted from his horse, and when he was near Montezuma, they simultaneously paid great reverence to one another. Montezuma bade him welcome and our Cortés replied through Doña Marina wishing him very good health. And it seems to me that Cortés, through Doña Marina, offered him his right hand, and Montezuma did not wish to take it, but he did give his hand to Cortés and Cortés brought out a necklace which he had ready at hand, made of glass stones”. The “Florentine Codex” by Fray Bernardino De Sahagun “And when they [the Spaniards] had come as far as Xoloco, when they had stopped there, Moteucçoma dressed and prepared himself for a meeting, along with other great rulers and high nobles, his rulers and nobles.” Also notes “And when Moteucçoma went out to meet them at Huitzillan, thereupon he gave various things to the war leader, the commander of the warriors; he gave him flowers, he put necklaces on him, he put flower necklaces on him, he girded him with flowers, he put flower wreaths
The stone also had four boxed figures which represented the four previous suns. The Aztec believed that the universe was maintained by supplying blood to the gods. When Cortez landed in Mexico the Aztec ruler believed him to be Quetzalcoatl. This would have allowed him to have or gain anything he wanted from the Aztec’s. If people believed he was a god, then he could do anything he wanted to do.
The center of their civilization was the Valley of Mexico, a huge oval basin about 7,500 ft. above sea level. In the Valley of Mexico were different cities and towns, the 3 powerful cities being Texcoco, Tiacopan and the capital Tenochtitlan. It took awhile to make the marshy island with limited resources more desirable and profitable. Once they adopted the agricultural system of farming known as Chinampas, their constant maintenance of the swampy land ended. Quickly, their land transformed into a fertile and productive island, allowing trade and markets to become productive and one of the best.
Human sacrifice to gods and tale-telling to people were two components that summarized and showed the religious admiration to their gods in the Aztec culture, and are shown repeatedly in the key art pieces including the Templo Mayor, the Calendar Stone and the Coyolxauhqui Stone. Human sacrifice was seen as a crucial behavior to give offering to god in exchange of the god’s protection to the Aztec society, and this idea is illustrated in both Templo Mayor and the Coyolxauhqui Stone. The sacred Templo Mayor was viewed and honored as a main temple to perform Aztec’s main religious ritual, to dedicate the deities of both the god of warfare Huizilopotchli and the god of rain Tlaloc. And the practice of sacrificing was seen through the sacrificial stone in the center
Next, in this lesson of a PROPRESSOR we offer you a brief summary of the Aztec culture so that you can better know how they were organized at a sociopolitical level, since it was one of the most advanced civilizations. The Inca civilization, also called Inca civilization or Quechua civilization, was the last of the great pre-Columbian civilizations that retained its independent state (Inca empire) during the Conquest of America, until the conquest of Peru (1532-1533). With the extension of the empire, it was absorbing new cultural expressions of the annexed peoples, and was located in the current territories of Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador. From the sacred city of Cuzco, the Quechuas consolidated a State that managed to synthesize the artistic, scientific and technological knowledge of its predecessors. Based on a concept of expansion of the State, the Tawantinsuyo (Inca Empire) collected those knowledge and empowered them.
Machu Picchu shows us humans that the Incas knew how to use agriculture to its advantage and how they used their intelligence towards hunting and even the creation of Machu Picchu. Tourists will enhance numerous quantities of knowledge if they visit Machu Picchu. Visiting Machu Picchu would feel the same as if standing in past day Inca civilization. That is the effect Machu Picchu will have. The setting Machu Picchu is in allowed for the Incas to have a wide variety of food selections and resources to use.
The incas technology was The quipu,it was a crafted tool that was used as a communication system in the Incan civilization.They used the sun temples to study the positions of the sun, the moon, and the planet Venus. The sun temples were a scientific advance in the Incan civilization. The Mayans One by one, the cities in the southern lowlands were abandoned, Maya civilization was that region had collapsed. The reason for this mysterious.Between 1517 and 1519, the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan had an earthquake. Lake Texcoco had flooded the capital city.. After some brief and violent contact in 1517, a Spanish force under Hernan Cortes arrived in 1519 to completely subjugate the Aztecs.