Renfrew worked many years developing theories with other archaeologists and anthropologists looking at symbolic evolution within the archaeological record, creating a cognitive-processual theory looking at correlations in human behavior in the lens of an archaeologist (Trigger 2006: 433). It wouldn’t be unreasonable to look into the developments of cognitive process in the development of tools and goods found. You could answer a variety of questions like whether or not something was an environmental adaptation, what in the culture required the use of a certain artifact type. However, there is some variability to theory in which we can analyze, for archaeologists that were interested in looking at the cognitive aspects of archaeology, became more interest in the development mental process within practice, because interpretations of cognition without textual reference proves more difficulty than necessary at times (Trigger 2006: 433-435). This does change with different archaeologists, who adapted various methods to their approaches, which turns the tide for people like Schiffer in 1976, where he theorizes a relationship between the variables of materials objects and variables of behavior (Hodder 1982: 10).
For living in a time period where there was not a lot of technological advances that would help them build what they wanted at a faster pace, they had to learn to work with what they had. They also had to learn how to work with materials to be able to make the magnificent and amazing temples, that they are known for. “ The general temple-pyramid consisted of a platform, a long, broad, steep double staircase going up the center, with balustrades going up the sides of the steps. The Aztecs used sculpted stone blocks and skulls to decorate the platform and the ends of the balustrades” (General Construction of Pyramid-Temples). The Aztecs used and made platforms and tools that would help them make their temples better and better each time.
The Aztec and Spanish The outcome of the contact between the Aztec and the Spanish was welcoming initially but after a certain period of time, The Spanish decided to take over the Aztec and Inca Empire. The purpose of this Spanish expedition was to seek fame and fortune for Spain and also spread Christianity to the natives and new lands. This had led them into war between the Aztec and Spanish The Aztec first arrives in Mexico in the late 1100s. By 1250, they settled near the shores of Lake Texcoco and by 1325 they had begun building the majestic city of Tenochtitlan. In 1518 Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes held an expedition to conquer Mexico and the Aztec holds almost the central and southern of Mexico.
The Aztec Empire belongs to the group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. From the 13th to the 16th century the Aztecs steadily conquered and ruled over Central-America. We have to note that the word ‘Aztec’ refers to the Nahuatl speaking communities of Mesoamerica. The term was coined by the European conquerors, and was not used by the natives. They called themselves as the Mexica.
Once Hernan had found land in what we call now mexico he went on an exploration of the land to figure out what was there. Once he was there he had found where the Aztecs main city was. The Aztecs had all of the things that Hernan was hoping for. So here comes the next thing in line, Hernan was going to try to conquer the Aztecs with his army and succeeded. His next goal was to try to create a settlement for Spain.
This article covers how traditions impacted Mexico’s holiday of Día de los Muertos. In addition, the article goes in depth as to how Day of The Dead branched off of Mesoamerica and is celebrated throughout the world. The holiday being revered in all of Mexican (area where majority of celebrations occur) culture gives insight as to what factors influenced current celebrations. One such example is how the ceremonies of the early Mesoamericans often included the pagan tradition of a celebration with cemeteries. According to Austin Robbins “Día De Los Muertos Comes Alive at Visiting Artist Lecture” article this unique blend of the two civilizations resulted in what is now modern day Mexican beliefs, morals and most essentially their development.
The movement was occurring during the time this book was being publish. The movement was happening in political, economic, and cultural spheres which affirmed the value of Latino experience and protested the discrimination Latino were suffering. The book Bless me Ultima was the first novel to rejoice this powerful movement. This book mention the Mexican Americans heritage in New Mexico and the Spanish conquistadores, the Aztecs, and the Comanche. The book also mention the llano which was rich in the history of the vaqueros, descendants of the Spanish conquistadores.
Maya, inca, and Aztec comparison i will be writing a essay about the differences and similarities between these 3 civilizations. The Maya civilization started in southeastern Mexico and their civilization lasted about 3,000 years. While The Inca empire existed in Western South America from about 1200 to 1535 AD,The Aztec existed was from 1325 AD to 1521 AD and it was formed in Mexico. Subsequently the Spanish found- ed the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital, from where they proceeded with the process of colonizing Central America. on the other hand the Inca empire ended because The Spanish Conquista- dores brought smallpox and other European diseases with them when they came ashore and these diseases quickly
Levy tells the story of Hernan Cortes, originally setting sail from Spain, as he sailed from Cuba to the shores of Mexico in 1519, eager about the discovery of new lands. Cortes, as well as many other explorers during this time, was inspired by the Three G’s: God, gold, and glory. He planned to conquer the new lands for Spain, to convert the natives to Catholicism, and to obtain the riches of the land, mostly gold. Conquistador is basically a record of the last days of the Aztec civilization, as the two groups, the Aztecs and the Spaniards, clash, and the Spaniards ultimately come out on top. When Cortes and his men first arrived on the island of Cozumel in 1519, they were unaware that a complex and advanced civilization was just beyond the shores of Mexico.
Both France and Spain explored and colonized North America in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to increase their wealth and convert native Indians to Catholicism, but comparing the reasons for expanding into certain areas, the relationships with native Indians, and the methods to increase population will highlight the similarities and differences of the methods used by each to achieve colonization in North America. To begin with, Spain gains a new level of wealth and power through the acquisition of large amounts of silver in Zacatecas and Potosi, but this new wealth creates the desire for more and the need to protect the silver. The Spanish expand northward into North America in search of more gold and silver, and follow
After reviewing the information that has been provided about the Tennessee Valley Authority vs. Hill court case along with additional findings about the primary purpose for the construction of the Tellico Dam, it has made the questions that are ask in this week’s post much easier to answer. Although, there are some key factors that must be taken into consideration before we choose either side. These factors included that the TVA project was approved to start construction in 1967, David Etnier discovered the snail darter in 1973, this small fish was declared an endangered species in 1975, the Tellico community expected the dam project to generate power, and benefit their economic resources. Also, we have to think about the fact that the snail darter was downgraded in 1980 to a threatened species simply because it was found in other areas of the Tennessee
With the excavation almost dead center of Australia Puritjarra Cave Rock Shelter thus finding out that the site had already been occupied 22 000 years ago. The Shelter had a floor space of 400 m². Shortly after it was shown to go back to around 32,000BP. Puritjarra Cave Rock Shelter was still used up to the 1930s when people went onto missionary stations in the western MacDonnell Ranges. I checked multiple sources to confirm that Michael Smith in 1987 had the first proof that 22 000 years ago it was occupied last.
Referred to as “the best representative of the Mexican sculptural movement at the time” by Diego Rivera, I chose to do my research on Guatemalan painter and sculptor Rafael Yela Günther. I am attracted to his work because long before I knew who he was I saw some of his sculptures personally in Guatemala and I was truly impressed. Naturally my interest to know more about his artwork grew when I learned that Rivera had some influence on him during their time working together in Teotihuacan. Rafael Yela Günther was born on September 18, 1888 in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Günther’s first mentor in creating sculptures was his father, Baldomero Yela Montenegro; he was a sculptor and marble-carver.