Another theory of motivation is the arousal theory of the motivation, this theory talks about the people who are motivated to do things to moreover decrease or increase the levels of arousals. According to this theory, people are motivated to constantly maintain the best possible level of arousal even this can contrast bases on the human being or the circumstances. Lastly is the humanistic theory motivation in particular illustrated by Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of need. It is all about on the idea that an individual also have a strong cognitive
Gorman (2004) says: “Motivation is an attempt to explain the ‘why’ of all forms of behaviour and is concerned with goal-directed behaviour.” Have you ever asked yourself the question, “What is my motivation for doing a specific task?” We need to know why we need to do something in order to effectively perform it. As stated by Cherry (2014) “Emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and
In the theory, there are three drivers of needs and employee behavior, namely “achievement, affiliation and power.” The term “acquired needs” is used, because McClelland argues that humans are not born with inherent needs. Needs develop as one grows and learns. The need for achievement connotes the aim to compete and excel beyond others. On the other hand, the need for affiliation pertains to the “desire” to connect or socialize in a certain group. The need for power refers to the “desire” to lead, teach or inspire others using authority.
McClelland's Theory David McClelland identified three motivators that he believed human have a need for achievement, a need for affiliation, and a need for power. People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator. This theory also knows as Learned Needs Theory. First is the need for achievement (nAch).Achievement is to achieve challenging goals or doing something that never did. This people have a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals and they take risks to accomplish their selected goals.
Motivation can be described as internal forces that impact the direction, intensity, and endurance of a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour. It consists of direction, intensity and persistence. There are two types of theories that seek to explain motivation, these are content theories and process theories. Content theories also known as need theories
As a result of a long-term study and research by many from the 1930’s until today (Sandra Graham, Bernard Weiner, 1996), there have been many motivational theories concerning employee development with the aim to understand and interpret the motivational factors that contribute to the satisfaction of the workforce as well as their further evolution, beginning from the generic and psychological focused theories to more human resource management related theories and practices. Regarding the efforts of the definition of motivation in the working environment, they are defined by the importance of the characteristics of various existing factors and their interaction within this environment. The reason motivation is considered an important and individualistic concept is that no employee will become motivated if they do not receive any type of compensation. For motivation at the place of work, some definitions were recorded in a general manner and others contain a more analytical approach. Motivation can be described as a functioning development that occurs when interior compensations are earned through an interesting and challenging work, the activation of the workers to achieve the company’s business goals and the effort to create appropriate incentives for cooperation between the employees so as for them to accomplish the objectives set by the company.
Theories of Motivation used in Organisations There are several theories of motivation used by organisations. The following three theories can be applied in the work place; these are Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Skinner’s reinforcement theory. 1.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs theory This theory is a motivation theory developed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow stated that there are basic needs that need to be fulfilled in order for employees to function efficiently, be happy and that managers need to understand the importance of these basic needs (Bagraim, et al., 2012, p. 86). The basic needs identified are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation (Erasmus, et al., 2013, pp.
Another theory related of organization there are David McClelland (1955) and Expectancy theory Greenberg (2011) Abraham Maslow (1943) Abraham Maslow’s theory based of three assumptions: 1) People’s needs are arranged in order of importance (hierarchy), going from basic needs (physiological) to more complex needs (self-actualization). 2) Peoples will not be motivated to satisfy a higher level need unless the lower level needs have been at least minimally satisfied. 3) People have five classifications of needs. Listed below are these five needs in order of importance to the individual. The basic needs A Theory of Human Motivation represented the idea that human action is directed toward goal attainment (Maslow, 1943).
Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” viewpoint. CONTENT THEORIES 1. Abraham Maslow’s theory – Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow introduced his theory in his article “A theory of Human Motivation”, in 1943 (Maslow, 1943). According to Abraham Maslow, a person attempts to fulfill a higher need when his lower needs are satisfied. A higher level need serves as a motivation only when the lower level need is satisfied and is no longer a source of motivation.