54). Andersen and Berk (1998) take on the nurture perspective, while Leary (1999) claims that nature is the determining factor of a person’s personality. Andersen and Berk discuss the impact of old relationships on new/present relationships; notably, the “activation of mental representations of significant others and the use of these representations in relation to new individuals underlie transference, and thus that transference occurs as a result of basic principles that govern the activation and use of social constructs”
Next, these researchers factor-analyzed the primary traits themselves in order to investigate personality structure at a higher level. From this, the broader ‘second-order’ or global factors emerged – the original Big Five. These researchers found that the numerous primary traits consistently coalesced into these broad dimensions, each with its own independent focus and function within personality. The global factors provide the larger conceptual, organizing framework for understanding the meaning and function of the primary traits. However, the meanings of the global themselves were determined by the primary traits which converged to make them
The behavioral theory identifies how the external environment governs and shapes the actions of the individual, which are ultimately not innate. It also focuses on the unconsciousness’ absence and concentrates about what is happening in the meantime, that can help us understand one’s behavior. The human’s behavior, thoughts and feelings, which are assigned to the socio-cultural perspective, are influenced by the social environment and cultural learning, and the presence of numerous people in their lives. The biological category groups the biological perspective, which develops medical studies: it explains how the inner body organs coordinate and work, especially with the brain, in order to perform the individual’s
It is considered that personality relates to the specific traits a person displays. A trait is a characteristic, which can be related to a person, for example ‘laziness’. Therefore Peterson (1998) suggests that is a combination of these traits which results in personality. As with any construct in psychology there are numerous theories behind personality. The most common used theory in the literature currently is The Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM) used by many in their writing (Wiggins, 1996; Bleidorn et al.
They are able to be empathic, negotiate and cope within multiple roles and cultural contexts. Multicultural personality dimensions are a narrow cluster of personality traits that have been conceptualized based on the broad personality model of Big Five (Mc Crae & Costa, 1999). Multicultural personality includes components of cultural empathy, openmindedness, emotional stability, social initiative and flexibility (Van der Zee & Van Oudenhoven, 2000). Cultural empathy refers to the ability to empathize with feelings, thoughts, behaviours of in-dividuals from different cultural backgrounds. Open-mindedness refers to holding open and unprejudiced attitude toward different groups, their cultural norms and values.
Review different biological and psychological treatments for two personality disorders. What treatment approaches are useful for those specific personality disorders? Discuss long-term outcomes for a person with a personality disorder. A personality is a combination characteristics or qualities that form an individual 's distinctive character (McLeod, 2014). A person’s personality is defined by habitual behaviors, with cognitive and emotional patterns that factor into the biological and environmental factors.
To be precise, biological maturation, activity, social experience, and equilibration impinge on the development of thinking (Piaget,1970). In this regard, he came up with the view that people inherit two basic tendencies in thinking, namely organization and adaptation. Organization refers to constant arranging experience and information into psychosocial structure. Concerning adaptation, people are born to adjust the environment. One of Piaget’s key views was stages of cognitive development, he divided cognitive development into separate stages as follows: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage.
Pavlov’s classical conditioning and E.L.Thorndike’s ‘Law of Effect’ (Iversen, 1992). Skinner (1957) later expanded his theory by including schedules of reinforcement. Maslow’s theory was inspired by E.S. Fromm’s theory of personality (Cooke, Mills & Kelley, 2005). His original five-staged model (physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization needs from basic to less basic order) (Maslow, 1943) was later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and self-transcendence needs (Maslow, 1969).
II. LITERATURE REVIEW Journal I Antecedents Of Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study Emotional Intelligence Salovey and Mayer (1990) introduced the concept of “emotional intelligence” in their work which combines affect with cognition, emotion, and intelligence. Emotional intelligence represents a set of dispositional attributes for monitoring one’s own and others’ feelings, beliefs, and internal states in order to provide useful information to guide one’s and others’ thinking and action (Carson, Carson, & Birkenmeier, 2000; Goleman, 1995). Carson et al. (2000) developed a measure of emotional intelligence based on Goleman’s five behavior-based factors: empathetic response - the ability to understand the emotional structure of other people; mood regulation - the ability to regulate and manage one’s moods and impulses; interpersonal skill - the ability to manage relationships and build positive networks; Internal motivation – the ability to influence the environment and pursue goals for the greater good while delaying immediate gratification; and self-awareness – the ability to self-monitor moods, emotions and drives, and their effects on others.
In the Ecology Systems Theory, the primary influences are intercultural, community-level, organisational-level and interpersonal/individual (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). The individual, community, organisation and culture are nested spheres as actions in one sphere can influence what happens in another sphere (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). Interpersonal microsystem consists of roles a person plays within his or her social setting, such as mother, sister, father, brother, employee, friend, peer and/or student (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). These microsystems influences can be learned but are also ingrained based on gender, ethnicity, generational influences and culture (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). In this sphere personality, knowledge, and beliefs are important in that they are continually shaped by the environment and other individual with whom one comes in contact with (Rimer and Glanz, 2005).