Mostly LG has been defined as governmental organs having jurisdiction over specific portion of a country with some delineated functions and powers. According to scholars (Jennings, 1947; Rao, 1965; Clarke, 1987; Pallot, 1998) LG is conceptualized as public institutions, mandated to decide and administer a limited range of public services within relatively small homogeneous territory as a sub division of a country. In a more expanded explanation of LG, Clarke (1985) opines that; “Local Government is that part of the Government of a nation or state which deals mainly with such matters as concern the inhabitants of the particular district of places, together with those matters which parliament has deemed it desirable should be administered by local bodies, subordinate to the Central
In Chapter 12 of Readings for Sociology, Garth Massey included and piece titled “The Code of the Streets,” written by Elijah Anderson. Anderson describes both a subculture and a counterculture found in inner-city neighborhoods in America. Anderson discusses “decent families,” and “street families,” he differentiates the two in in doing so he describes the so called “Code of the Streets.” This code is an exemplifies, norms, deviance, socialization, and the ideas of subcultures and countercultures. Anderson begins the section by explaining that there are two separate cultures in inner-city neighborhoods. The first are the “decent” this group is defined by commitment to “middle-class values,” (101).
People often imagine that a dystopian society is vastly diverse from our modern day society, but in fact they are very similar. Sure there are a few differences not limited to, rules, family, and how the societies are governed. One prime example of a dystopian fiction is The Giver, written by Lois Lowry, which takes place in a town that is governed by a circle of people with no emotions or feelings. In our modern society we have multiple rule guides called the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence. These rule guides were created and maintained by our government, which consists of three branches that make community decisions; they are kept in balance with a system called checks and balances so that one branch isn’t
The primary difference in the political organization of both East and West African from 1000-1500 CE comes in the form of government. While all sub-Saharan Africa utilized kin-based groups, West Africa was structured more around kingdoms, and East Africa structured around city-states. Some West African kingdoms had a strong centralized government, such as the Kingdom of Kongo. The government included a king, who controlled military, judicial, and financial affairs, with the help of his officials. When the emergence of formal states came about, the strong kin-based societies of the West survived for centuries later.
DBQ - Democracy in Colonial America Essay There were both democratic and undemocratic features in colonial America, as democracy was a work in progress. Virginia’s House of Burgesses, Plan on a Slave ship, and The Lady’s Law are 3 examples of the documents I used. I also explained my reasoning in my paragraphs. Below are my reasonings, and my Documents. Citizen Participation is one democratic feature.
The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution are similar in addressing the problems that were present at that moment. However, there is a significant number of differences. One of the main differences between the Articles and the Constitution is the way in which they set up the legislature. The Articles of Confederation are established as a unicameral legislature referring to the congress. The Constitution on the other hand, is established as a bicameral legislature with an upper and lower house, senate, and a House of Representatives.
Authority is based on the consent of the government while power is based on externalities and force. With these definitions in mind, he discusses how throughout history, the African-American community have undergone police power and not authority. Ending the article, Coates then makes the claim that
The structure of federalism is in which little powers in the hands of the central government. Some powers are left to the states, some are shared to the states, and some powers are granted to the central government. It is a system under the government powers are divided between the central government and smaller units such as the states. Neither has control of others, some have their independent actions. This can be contrasted with two types of government, a confederation and a unitary government.
Explain the difference between a centralized organization and a decentralized organization. A centralized organization generally relies on a single person or a very small, select group of people to make the decisions for the rest of the organization to follow. Pertaining to criminal justice, this would be a national police force under the federal government or, in the more extreme cases, under a single totalitarian leader. Examples of nations with a centralized police force are Israel, Denmark, Belgium, and Sweden, where centralization has seen some success (Berkley, 1970). Contrarily, examples of centralization could also be found in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and fascist Italy and Spain (Berkley, 1970).
The hierarchy of courts of Malaysia begins with the Magistrates’ Court, followed by the Sessions Court, High Court, Court of Appeal and finally is the Federal Court of Malaysia. There are generally two types of trials, criminal and civil. The jurisdiction of the courts in civil or criminal matters are contained in the Subordinate Courts Act 1948 and the Courts of Judicature Act 1964. Article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. Thus this creates two separate local jurisdiction of the courts – for Peninsular Malaysia and for East Malaysia.