County Council and District Council. On the other hand the categories of local government in United States are as follows: County governments, town or township governments, Municipal Governments, Special-Purpose Local Government. In order to avoid total chaos in UK local system, some functions-Fire, Police, and Public Transport are exercised through joint Boards to which all the Local authorities in an area appoint members. The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution makes local government a matter of state rather than federal law, with special cases for territories and the District of Columbia. As a result, the states have adopted a wide variety of systems of local government.
Throughout history, from many different civilisations, from the Roman Empire to present day politics, the 'state' has adopted different policies and regimes in order to govern the said country, albeit potentially having ulterior motives. The concept of the 'state' is often defined as the municipal government of a society, which is put into place
Even where LED is not clearly stipulated or defined, it is implicit in the various provisions of local governments and municipal legislations. Local government laws have provisions for governance: establishment of municipalities, town councils, city/metropolitan councils, rural district councils; for planning and management of the areas under their jurisdictions (built environment/ agricultural areas/ forest areas), for financing local development; for making local bye laws; and for interaction and collaboration with the other spheres of
It is an uneven process that takes place in a physical environment. Urbanization is one possible outcome of the three fundamental population processes--fertility, mortality, and migration. These processes are in turn the result of individual decisions undertaken in a sociocultural, economic, political and environmental context. One consequence of urbanization is the uneven incorporation of a variety of institutional forms into the larger cultural environments, identified as urban, peri urban and rural. In particular, we identify five classes of institutional arrangements that arise within the complex continuum from rural to urban and that fall within the range of phenomena that various scholars and practitioners have identified as peri urban.
The French political system is such that, there is provision for separation of powers among the three arms of government though, in reality what exist is fusion of powers. (Bello – Imam) For instance, “the Prime Minister who is the leader of the cabinet belongs to both the executive and legislative arms of government”. (Bello-Imam 2005:7). In the Nigerian Political System, there is clear separation of powers between the three arms of government as provided for by the 1999 constitution. Bello-Imam (2005) opined that, separation of powers among the three arms of government is necessary in order to maintain personal liberty and integrity, while fusion of powers is indispensable in order to promote harmony and good governance.
There are four specific instruments that can be used in the professionalization of the local government officials: education, certifications, licensure and codes of conduct. First, every profession has codes of conduct. These codes can be enforceable codes which can lead to removal from the profession if not followed and these codes can also be non-enforceable, which are just generally associated with membership in a society. In the Philippines, Republic Act No. 6713 or also known as “Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees” provides for the code of conduct in the government and enumerate the rules which encompass not only local government officials, but all the government officials and employees – regardless
The informal rental housing markets are present in section B, C and D of the sub-markets indicated in table 1. As depicted in table 1, regular housing markets are mostly in the formal areas where the states intervened through planning, allocating and regulating as the residential zone of land use. The slum housing markets are previously suitable for residence but now deteriorating due to miss management and other factors within as well as external. Good examples are government housing scheme in Morata in Port Moresby and 2 Mile in Lae in the 1980’s. Invasion housing markets are mostly on the good buildable customary land on the peri- urban.
In this situation, the board only serves as the policy-making body. In addition, officers may need to be elected if it is decided to incorporate a cooperative. The role of officers will vary as well depending on how their functions are outlined in the bylaws of the cooperative. Sometimes, an officer can have more power than the board or sometimes they are simply the figurehead only assigned to sign documents for outside
There are two categories of local government bodies operating in rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. The Ministry of Local Government coordinates the activities of these bodies at the national level. Local rural bodies are known as the Zilla Parishad and are found at the district level; Upazilla Parishad are found the Upazilla level and Union Parishad at the Union level (Uddin, 1999: 4). Local urban bodies are the City Corporation at the Metropolitan level. Divisional areas in Upazilas are known as Pourashavas (municipalities) (Uddin, 1999).
In pursuit of its goal, the paper is divided into six. Concept of Public Administration Inside the discipline of social sciences, the perception of public administration like most concepts is still in a definition dispute. The deference of opinion, is largely due to the indispensable nature of the administrative and bureaucratic process and structure, and the additional role of government from its customary role in law and order maintenance to the execution of socioeconomic responsibilities via supervisory functions, infrastructure provision and for other essential services. (Agagu,