What is talk/text? & why we are talking? Talk means to say words aloud in order to express thoughts, feelings, opinions, etc. People are talking with others to find something out or to persuade somebody to do something or to build relationship. To talk in any language, you have to know the words sounds for that particular language & to read/write any text for the same language, you have to know the visual or other symbols.
Brown and Yule (2000) state that speaking was to express the needs–request, information, service, etc. The speakers say words to the listener not only to express what in his mind but also to express what he needs. Most people might spend their everyday life in communicating to others. Therefore; communication involves at least two people where both sender and receiver need to communicate to exchange information, ideas, opinions, views, or feelings. The speakers must consider the person they are talking to as listeners.
„Knowing a language means knowing its word structures and meanings.”( Cambridge University Press, American English: History, Structure, and Usage, Julie S. Amberg and Deborah J. Vause, Word systems) Futhermore, the study of linguistic semantics means to focus on the relations between words,phases, signs and symbols that is used for understanding human expression though language. I think that for understanding a foregn language you need to know different vocabularies and it can be compared with universal uman
What is Language? Language is a way through which human beings communicate with one another. It is specific quality that is only present in human beings. It can either be in spoken or written form. It is because of language we are able to exchange our ideas, beliefs, thoughts, emotions, knowledge as well as our imaginations.
Communication is “a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour” (Communication, n.d., para. 1). As humans, we naturally interact with others therefore, it is important to understand our personal communication styles, and how they can affect communication. This essay will attempt to cover my personal communication experience, as well as, three main concepts of Eric Berne’s theory with a link to my experience. Moreover, a discussion of reflection of my own communication skills, interpersonal professional communication style and cultural influences.
Body language is defined as “communication by means of facial expressions, gestures, postures, and other wordless signals. Body language also includes … hair and clothing styles.” (World Book 2010, 435). It is used as an effective tool to understand how people feel and convey what they think. It is a product of learning or genetic inheritance. In different cultures, body language is explained in different ways.
It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people. Language is further defined as “the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and language is any specific example of such a system.” This paper aims to investigate the cultural aspect of communication which is referred to as pragmatics. Cutting (2008) “describes pragmatics as a field of linguistics which examines the language and language variations according to the contexts in which they are used. One of the most prominent contexts of the language is the cultural environment in which the language is used”. La Castro (2012) “states that actions such as asking someone to close the door or ordering coffee at a coffee shop are closely related
The main similarity between spoken and written languages is that they both have communicative function. Spoken language has prosodic characteristic, such as intonation, rhythm and pausing, which let people to identify what kind of idea is transferred in the speech. For instance, ‘In English, statements, wh-questions, commands, and exclamations traditionally are described as having falling intonational patterns and yes-no questions as having typically rising patterns’ (Chun 2000:52). On the contrary, written language contains certain symbols and one of their functions is status marking of a written phrase. Taking the examples of expressions in spoken language mentioned by Chun, full stops ‘.’, question marks ‘?’ and exclamatory marks ‘!’ in written language as well as intonational patterns in spoken language can help to identify the act of stating (I am here.
It also includes visual communication ( the use of photographs or painting, video and films) and electronic communication which includes information being received or send through the means of telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television. The verbal communication contains oral and written communication between people using words in speaking, writing, reading and listening (Erasmus, Albin and Donawon, 1998: 8). According to Hughes (2003: 21), it is important to have clarified in verbal communication and it requires attention to personal dynamics. Written communication Written communication includes writings such as letters, memorandums, reports, notice on boards and diagrams( Sri Jin and Sunitti, 2009:
Communication is a process, which involves organizing, selecting and transmitting symbols in an appropriate way to ensure the listener perceives and recreates in his own mind the intended meaning of the communicator. Language is acquired by virtue of one being a member of society. As such communication is transmitted by one parson to another. Human beings have a compulsive urge to communicate with each other. Mutual understanding is not only based on communication but also is the core of human relations.