John Searle’s Chinese Room argument is a thought experiment in which Searle tries to refute the Turing Test and Strong AI. It involves a person, a room, 2 slots labeled A and B, and 3 pieces of paper. The Chinese Room argument was aimed at the position called “Strong AI” (Cole), also known as Representational Theory of the Mind, and against the Turing Test created by Alan Turing. The problem with the Chinese Room argument is that it misses the point entirely – Searle compares a CPU or computer to a person, a non-conscious object with a conscious agent (Cole). The argument also gets extrapolating the functions of the brain from a greater whole to a smaller part of the brain wrong – as a whole you may know things, but certain areas of the brain will always know more than we consciously do.
In the following chapters, he talks on multiple aspects of the effects of America’s multiculturalism such as its effects how history is written or how it effects our schools. Now while there aren’t any counterpoints to his actually thesis, he does address how everyone does not agree on every topic. For instance, in chapter 1 “A New Race” he speaks on how some people feel that America shouldn’t have just one race and should be divided into groups based on their ancestors. The research and scholarship that Schlesinger uses supports his thesis outstandingly seeing as he uses sources that support both sides of an argument to show that multiculturalism has had many conflicting
Ferdinand De Saussure’s notion that signs are arbitrary and their values are not intrinsic but instead constituted through difference is a claim that directly stems from his semiological view of linguistics. For Saussure language is a social fact. Saussure argues against the notion that the signifier and signified can be separated. He argues that there is a lack of definitive or intrinsic meaning from the sign itself therefore meaning is produced from the relationship between the signifier and signified, thus they cannot be separated. The value of symbols and images move past plain signification there must be a semiotic and reciprocal relationship between both components for meaning to be produced and recognized.
My perception of my body and matter in general is that it is in its essence divisible (Descartes,1641) This essay here will insert a reference to ‘Leibnitz’s Law’ or otherwise the relatively intuitive principle that for two things to be the same thing, they must share all the qualities of each other. Descartes does not specifically do so, but it is heavily inferred from his argument. Descartes now concludes that since minds are indivisible and bodies are, that according to the Leibnitz’s law they cannot be the same thing and hence: Conclusion: The mind is substantively different from the body and indeed matter in general. Because in this conception the mind is substantively distinct from the body it becomes plausible for us to doubt the intuitive connection between mind and body. Indeed there are many aspects of the external world that do not appear to have minds and yet appear none the less real in spite of this for example mountains, sticks or lamps, given this we can begin to rationalize that perhaps minds can exist without bodies, and we only lack the capacity to perceive them.
There is a difference between cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, and cultural competence. Cultural awareness is refers to the perception of principles from similarities and differences of cultures. Next, Cultural sensitivity is an understanding that you know traditional differences occur. Lastly, cultural competence are things that makes an individual knowledgeable, such as having being aware of different cultures differences and
The mind and body, if still only connected by the penial gland, are not completely distinct if connected in this way. The consequences of this problem are very serious for Descartes, because it undermines his claim to have a clear and distinct understanding of the mind without the body. For humans to have sensations and voluntarily move some of their bodily limbs requires a surface and contact. Since the mind must have a surface and a capacity for motion, the mind must also be extended and, therefore, mind and body are not completely separate. This means the “clear and distinct” ideas of mind and body, as mutually exclusive natures, must be false in order for mind-body causal interaction to occur.
This creates confusion defining the field and an adequate definition is needed based on a solid theoretical foundation which can be done through critical analysis of the concept of human services. There is literature available which offers numerous definitions of human services, but they are generally not accepted and can be misleading (Zins, 2001, pp.
Despite the fact that intercultural competence has different terminology when referring to disciple or approach, it can also relate to the debate about global citizenship. Intercultural competence is seen as the capability to develop an objective knowledge, attitude, and skills that prompt visible behavior and communication that are both successful and appropriate in intercultural interaction. In other words, intercultural competence is a range of different skills; cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills that lead to communicate effectively and suitable with different surrounding and culture. Intercultural competence can also be broken down into three constituent elements seen as knowledge, skills, and attitude. (Deardorff, 2006) With that being said, knowledge is my substantial weakness while skills and attitude are my strengths regarding intercultural competence.
Evans and Manis argue that the creation of contingent beings is dependent on a necessary being, and as a result, there must be an existent necessary being to create them. Yes, a necessary being may be uncaused since its existence does not require an explanation, but that does not mean that the cosmological argument does not entitle it. Despite this argument’s importance, Evans and Manis do mention that the cosmological argument is only a small piece of the puzzle when establishing the existence of God. The authors contend that the cosmological argument “hardly constitutes more than entering a wedge into the knowledge of God” (Evans and Manis 77). If someone accepts the conclusion of this argument, then they should search for more ways to learn about God and obtain further knowledge of
Cultural relativism has a variety of definitions, but the main idea is that a universal code of ethics does not exist--it varies culture to culture. Rachel’s examines cultural relativism in “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” and argues that there are commonalities of ethics throughout every culture. Rachels sections off his argument to better explain what they believe. In this piece, they argue that cultural relativism is not a proper theory. They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it.
The author, Jonathan Swift, goes on to list many supporting reasons for his solution by using both logic and emotional means of persuasion. While it is understood to be more of a mocking hyperbole, the blatant coldness in the writer’s tone is both more convincing, yet more frightening than either of the other articles. All three articles focus on the age-old, yet ever-present human conflict of overpopulation, existing in what seems like almost every time and place. Recently, both Shut the Door and Chinese Exclusion Act show some resemblance to immigration acts which have been trying to get passed in our government. In conclusion, while those two articles show us what is possibly currently happening within our government, A Modest Proposal show us what we hope the world and society will never have to come to, no matter how dire the situation may
Two major approaches when studying bystander behaviour are discourse analysis and experimental method. Latané & Darley and Levine have contributed to psychological study into this matter, using these different methods of experimentation to reach conclusions regarding the bystander effect. This essay will begin by describing the different uses of evidence in both methods. Furthermore, it will discuss what these methods have in common, for they equally attempt to understand why bystander behaviour occurs, and the reasons that they differ. It will examine why each method is a useful way of analysing human behaviour, and the similarities in the limited demographics used by these particular psychologists.