Anthropocentrism refers to human beings as the central most significant entities of the world. Mankind are superior among all species on earth whilst all other entities are subjected to exploitation for human growth. This belief forms the basis of many western religions and philosophies. A few anthropocentric philosophers argue that the earth’s resources are not limited or increase in human population will not exceed the carrying capacity of earth. They also claim that projections of human population and resource limitations are exaggerated or as time progresses new technology will be available to solve any future scarcity problems.
Durkheim however, looks at the larger effect on society, not just how the economy and society intertwine as Marx did. He therefore concludes that whilst a division of labour is necessary for the production of materials, which in turn create a domino effect to improve aspects of life. This concept is something that Marx had also suggested with Holt (2014: 69) believing that “when people sell their labour, the result is an increase in the wealth of society in general” (because the more money one gets, the more time there is to enjoy other aspects of life) it can also lead to the breakdown of societal values. Moreover, Durkheim believed that industrialisation would bring about the contest between Mechanical vs. organic solidarity. Mechanical Solidarity entailed a premise of social cohesion based upon a collective conscience (Ritzer: 8) -similarity and camaraderie between individuals (Morrison: 2006: 161)- within society doing the same job, and this was largely dependent on common routines such as religion or performing the same tasks.
Fascism kept on promising people the restoration of their economy and this was one of the factors that popularized Hitler, Mussolini and many others as nationalists with the mind of their countries looking forward to see great improvement in their economy. As per Miron (2011)Fascism as a type of government maintained very tight control measures over all the government institutions as well as citizens. It comes as a result of nationalism, ethnic and racial purity over all other things. Rising of fascism and Adolf Hitler in Germany is rooted in the after effects of World War I. Germany was the main blame in this war, with victorious allies imposing very tough penalties on Germany. These included making Germany pay for their wartime expenses as well as its own.
Organizations, in the past gave more importance on advanced technology for higher productivity surpassing the needs and mental state of its employees. This created a negative impact on the working environment among the employees. Thus it was realized that societal support goes hand in hand with technical innovations. This integration can only be made through quality of work life programs. Quality of work life denotes all the organizational inputs, which aim at employee’s satisfaction and enhancing organizational effectiveness.
It is depends on the existing firms and the “height” of barriers to entry that attributes of an industry’s structure. The threat of new entrants will affect by: Firstly, the economics of scale as “high” barriers to entry into the industry that can make the industry more attractive because of the existing firms can earn expect above normal profits. Secondly, the product differentiations that the existing firms have their own brand identification and customer loyalty that will lead to new entrants use more costs to start other industry and then reduce their potential return. Thirdly, cost advantages independent of scale mean that the existing firms have a whole range of cost advantages. There are proprietary technology, managerial know-how, favorable access to raw materials, and learning-curve cost advantages.
The origins of capitalism for him, comes from three imporant parts of Protestantism that capitalism came out of. Luther and the calling, Calvinism, and the lack of self-indulgent are all imporant keys to the formation of capitalism. Luther and the calling is a very imporant role in creating capitalism. Before this calling, people would go to the church and pray there. Luther created the idea that everything can be the calling, so even peoples work can be their calling.
IN his quote "no society can predict its own future states of knowledge" he factual out a justification to Marx concept of 'historicism '. Popper 's great works in defense of the liberal society were the open society and its enemies and the poverty of historicism. Whatever many be the form of government, security is that the one important factor that we as citizens expect from the society that we live in. Pooper critics clearly specifies that unlimited tolerance in a society mostly lead to the disappearance of tolerance. On the prospect of tolerance if we extend unlimited tolerance even to those who are intolerant and if we are not prepared enough to defend a tolerant society
The WTO system helps the governments to use an approach of more balanced view on the trade policy. The governments are better-placed in order to prevent themselves from the act of lobbying by the narrow interest groups by focusing on the trade-offs that are made for the benefits of everyone in the economy. Restricting imports may be looked as an alternative in supporting an economic sector but it biases the economy against the other sectors which should not be the subject to penalize. For example, if there are countries that protected their agriculture, other countries will have to pay higher for food, causing tensions on wages of all sectors. In helping to clear things up, the WTO system covers a wide range of sectors.
Identifying this capitalist spirit, a term which is somewhat subjective, was a remarkable shift away from the more deterministic doctrines of Marx and Durkheim. This capitalist spirit of asceticism, was said to come out of the Calvinist strand of Protestantism. Calvinism was unique from Catholicism, in that it was marked by the ‘extreme inhumanity’ (125) of belief in pre-destination. As a result of this doctrine the individual was tasked with offsetting their intense anxiety about the afterlife by looking for signs of their salvation. Weber quotes the sermons of Richard Baxter, who emphasises ‘hard, continuous bodily or mental labour’ (126) as ‘every hour lost is lost to labour for the glory of God’ (126).
Thus this increase in engaging contract labour in the core operational and technically sophisticated jobs has posed a serious challenge to industrial relations at workplaces. Here are some challenges in different perspectives- To Industrial Unit: The cost of employing contract labour is infact dearer beside the service charges payable to the labour contractor. The industry works with thin profit margins cannot afford to spend extra percent more towards the service charge payable to the labour contractor. Due to Government’s policy of abolition of Contract Labour from one operation to the other, industry is finding it difficult to engage extra hands to discharge short-term contract including export commitments; as a result, employment generation is also