1. Introduction The purpose of this section of the essay is to present the theoretical framework that will be employed and unpacked in completing my field of study, which seeks to investigate bias in media representations of conflict. The ways in which the media construct the news regarding conflict and peace are important. This is the case because society often depends on the media as a major source of information about conflicts. The main focus of this section seeks to unpack the journalistic techniques used by the media when representing conflict.
At this point, Foucault discussed the issue from a different angle. He mentioned the concept of surveillance which is used to control the society because individuals act differently when they know that they are being watched. In addition, the surveillance is also applied on media in order to limit its freedom and shape the discussed topics to serve systems’ agendas. So, the flow of information that was in the public sphere has been manipulated using media which transform the citizens into consumers that absorb the content that media provide them. Thus, the public opinion builders became just
INTRODUCTION Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a multi-way approaches on how the discourse view the language based on the social practice and how the social and political domination influences the reproduction of the text and talk. In Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) the reproduction of text is not only on the denotative meaning but on the connotative as well. Sometimes, many representations can be made only from one simple sentence structure. In this paper, we try to analyze how Anastasia G. Stamou criticizes a Greek newspaper regarding the issue of protestors and the non-protestors. But the writer has centralized more about the non-protestors; about how the frequent interaction between the protestors and the non-protestors affecting them.
Framing theory is mostly used to describe the influential power a communicating text has on a society’s thoughts (Entman, 1993:51). Linström and Marais (2012) explain that framing provides a description of communication’s power in directing societies thoughts into a certain direction regarding a topic. Yet there is no precise statement as to how frames manifest in a text or to what manner is thought influenced by them (Entman, 1993:51). Entman (2007:164) defines framing as a process which entails the gathering of certain elements of reality and formulating a narrative which promotes a certain interpretation. McCombs, et al, (2011:29-30) articulate that in the media there are several areas that have the potential to be influenced from both the inside and outside of the media organisation.
This research project intends to use an explanatory approach, by reviewing both primary data and existing data regarding the research topic; the role of media in conflict management. Essentially, the researcher intends to explain phenomena based on a cause and effect model. As mentioned in the introduction chapter, the two primary variables under consideration are media and conflict management. The study focuses on the extent to which the media contributes to conflict; escalation and de-escalation roles. In essence, the study purposes to analyze and evaluate the influence of the media on its audience during conflict.
While agenda-setting is primarily concerned with the media telling people which stories to think about, framing not only tells people what to think about but also how to think about those issues. Some studies see framing as part of agenda-setting; others argue it is a very different thing (Shah, McLeod, Gotlieb, & Lee, 2009, p. 83). In other studies, framing is construed as a form of second level agenda-setting – they not only tell the audience what to think about (agenda-setting theory), but also how to think about that issue (second level agenda setting, framing theory). In another study, it is stated that they both involve similar psychological processes but different cognitive processes (Shah, McLeod, Gotlieb, & Lee, 2009, p.
Concept 7.1 Definition of News According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, news is reports of recent events that appear in newspapers or on television or radio. The functions of news are to inform, educate and also entertain people about what is currently happening around them. 7.2 News Headlines According to Swan (2005: 211), headlines are the short titles above news reports. Headlines should represent the main idea and the most important parts of the news in brief. The function of headlining is complex because headlines have to contain a clear, succinct and if possible intriguing message, to kindle a spark of interest in the potential reader, who, on average, is a person whose eye moves swiftly down a page and stops when something catches his attention as what Crystal (1969: 174) has stated.
It can be presented in the dialect utilized on shows, and that is composed in the daily paper and magazines. Is it wrong for a reporter to add things to the news that is not real to make it more interesting? It can be if the reporter is tending to his bias thoughts and disregarding the objectiveness, fairness, and balance that he or she promised to do. Anyhow is this truly an issue in the media?. Regarding people who believe that media is always telling the truth, media do present biased information because it sometimes favors one side over the other, tells a lie until it becomes the truth, and it filters out or adds in news according to their theory.
I believe these journalistic values could help people to understand some biases in these media and improve people’s abilities of critical thinking. However, the journalistic values from Gan are about the western media and there are also some important journalistic values which is different from Gan’s journalistic values in China. In this essay, two of them will be presented by illustrating with some examples. To begin with, I believe this story from the front page of the newspaper about a remark that Xi made at a symposium on 30th August with representatives of non-Communist parties fits the journalistic value of leadership. In the leadership value, Gan thought the media tends to look at the actions of a leader and focus on the difference that one person could make (Hanson 46).
Should the Fair Trade Act protect MSMEs as a specific class of competitor since they lack the resources to compete with larger firms thereby benefiting from the competition policy? RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study adopted an inductive approach, and it sought to analyze the impact of anti-competitive behaviour on Jamaican MSMEs from the reported instances of anti-competitive behaviour. Data was collected from newspaper articles, journals and Fair Trade Commission press release and research documents. As the data was narrative in nature, it was analyzed using qualitative methodology, namely content analysis. The content analysis started with the reading and screening of newspaper articles, journals on the competition policy of South Africa and Singapore, and how they address issues specific to their MSMEs.