Media Effects Theory: The Media Theory Of The Media

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2.9 Media Effects Theory
The nexus between media and audience has been a subject of argument for a long time stirring various theories that argue the media directly affects audience to those theories that take a more critical look at audience behavior.
2.9.1 Direct Effect
This theory focuses on the role of the media as having strong and direct influence on the audience. In this theory, audiences are perceived as ‘passive’ in that they are not involved in making meaning of media contents (Ruddock, 2001). This theory also called Hypodermic syringe, suggests that the media transmit messages (ideas, information, belief so forth that are then picked up and acted upon by the audience, www.sociology.org.uk).
Discussing the direct effect of media on audience behavior, some argued that persuasive approaches can convince the audience and intervene in decision making, depending on the results of content assessments. Here human behavior is seen to be conditioned by a stimulus-response model in which the media transmit messages that are unquestionably received by a passive audience (www.artlab.org.uk).
Nevertheless, other researchers noted that the attitudes of the audience measured by analysts could only represent the attitudes of the audience that already agrees with the message from the very beginning, or to a limited extent, a combination of others. Thus, other researchers argue that the effect of a mass communication campaign may not be successful by simply increasing the flow of

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