There are many reasons why people watch television including entertainment, to get information, to keep up with fashion and trends among others. Theorists have proposed some theories to explain why people watch television and why people interpret what they watch the way they do. Theories that explain this phenomenon include the uses and gratification theory, the hypodermic needle model and the reception theory. The theories offer divergent perspectives on why people watch television and although the perspectives and in opposition to each other they offer good insight on the subject matter. The three theories are the focus of this paper so they are used to offer insight on the reasons people watch television.
The PSAs aims at getting the people to act on which can be further extended to certain attitudinal and behavioural change. Its purpose is to advocating to others, trying to practice, knowledge savvy and to be entertained. Some PSA ads use celebrity spokespersons to get noticed. Others attempt to appeal to the masses through describing risks and issues. Main functions of PSA are information concerning social issues and patterning new behaviours.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The researchers are trying to seek answers by using this three theories such as uses and gratification theory, cognitive theory of multimedia learning and e-learning theory. USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY This theory is a technique used as to know how people use media to fulfill their goals such as knowledge, interaction, relaxation and entertainment. It is also centered in users and audience approach. According to this theory, the needs and gratification can be classified into five categories and they are: Affective Needs – from the word “affection,” this talks about emotions, pleasure and other mood of the people by watching soap operas, drama series, movies and some shows that triggers a person’s mood. Cognitive Needs
Uses and Gratification theory has also been used in models that attempt to identify how people choose among media. A good example is Lacy (2000), who suggested that five communication needs (surveillance, diversion, socio-cultural, interaction, decision making and self-understanding) combine with other variables like quantity of news and media featured such as cost to determine how much time people will spend with various
While agenda-setting is primarily concerned with the media telling people which stories to think about, framing not only tells people what to think about but also how to think about those issues. Some studies see framing as part of agenda-setting; others argue it is a very different thing (Shah, McLeod, Gotlieb, & Lee, 2009, p. 83). In other studies, framing is construed as a form of second level agenda-setting – they not only tell the audience what to think about (agenda-setting theory), but also how to think about that issue (second level agenda setting, framing theory). In another study, it is stated that they both involve similar psychological processes but different cognitive processes (Shah, McLeod, Gotlieb, & Lee, 2009, p.
Discussing the direct effect of media on audience behavior, some argued that persuasive approaches can convince the audience and intervene in decision making, depending on the results of content assessments. Here human behavior is seen to be conditioned by a stimulus-response model in which the media transmit messages that are unquestionably received by a passive audience (www.artlab.org.uk). Nevertheless, other researchers noted that the attitudes of the audience measured by analysts could only represent the attitudes of the audience that already agrees with the message from the very beginning, or to a limited extent, a combination of others. Thus, other researchers argue that the effect of a mass communication campaign may not be successful by simply increasing the flow of
Central to all social groups is the concept of "interpretative flexibility" or "flexibility in how artifacts are designed" (Pinch and Biker 40). An authoritarian state wants to design and use technology to ensure control over media content. Knowing that people prefer the TV over radio, it focuses on the TV industry. As a result, the state hired the best hackers who can find out TV content that can be considered as against the state or its interests. The main interest is to continue one line of thinking in all media products- that the state is the best parent for its children, the citizens and the capitalist system is the best social and economic system to ensure wealth and security.
With social media and other media outlets taking over our contemporary world today, it is important to understand why and how people are seeking these media outlets and how they consume them to satisfy their own specific needs, whether it is knowledge, relaxation, social interactions/companionship, diversion, or escape. On the mass media scale, this is known as the uses and gratification theory. This paper is going to be discussing the early formation of the theory and its historical context, how it has helped us understand media today, its role in the modern world, and its main criticism’s. Uses and gratifications theory is an approach to understanding why and how individuals dynamically seek out particular media to satiate specific
Television advertisements can also be incorporated into audience reception analysis for the purpose of this study. The advertisements will be understood and interpreted differently by the various age categories within the focus group. According to Bryman (2012, p. 503), “meaning does not reside solely in the programmes but also in the way in which they are watched and interpreted”. Participants were selected from varying professions and social backgrounds to provide a wider scope of knowledge. The researcher can obtain information as to why the participants express opinions.
Thus, media plays an important role in educating society. Moreover, it has also been noted that media has often instructed the audiences about current happenings which affect them. Media is an essential tool of communication which helps in educating the masses. And also, media adds to societies and cultures by influencing and transforming them. Men and women perceive issues differently in their own unique way.