Some methods include the use of interviews, questionnaires, surveys, online research, and offline sources. This includes the utilization of books, articles, and studying previously done research. The best way to get information from the selected audience is through a survey. Surveys include a wide range of questions; answers depend and vary from individual to individual and/or experiments. Based on the information, data has to be put together in order to determine the relevance and usefulness of the information collected.
But, a little more detail about the participants’ backgrounds would have added on as a reliable factor. Despite that, they specify why there may be a difference and how it would have been difficult for them to access such information without the use of email; conforming to specification of task. On the whole, the article managed to explain the purpose of the study and showed the results that were achieved and clarified. The topic of study is one that is relatable to people of all ages and keeps the reader engaged. The data is very well presented and clear to
The authors also pointed out that the framework is suitable when dealing with data from an oral source. The researchers claimed that techniques to establish rigour have been started since the beginning of the study. Establishing rigour in a qualitative study is very important to have valuable research. The authors of the articles claimed that; coherence, relevance, auditability, reflexivity and credibility were all considered relevant to this study and that they were incorporated in different ways within the study. The researchers also failed to examine their own role during analysis of data in preventing any potential bias.
The researchers developed a systematic program of research, building on their own earlier findings making it more likely to make an important contribution (Polit & Beck, 2017). The authors paraphrased often, therefore not over relying on direct quotes from their original sources. •Does the review support the need for the study? The research review supported the study and strengthened the hypotheses. The data and additional quantitative and qualitative research articles supported the missed care results, limited bias, and predicted an existence of a relationship between the identified variables.
1. Introduction The purpose of this section of the essay is to present the theoretical framework that will be employed and unpacked in completing my field of study, which seeks to investigate bias in media representations of conflict. The ways in which the media construct the news regarding conflict and peace are important. This is the case because society often depends on the media as a major source of information about conflicts. The main focus of this section seeks to unpack the journalistic techniques used by the media when representing conflict.
This is regard by “the idea of trustworthiness” (Klenke, 2008, p.39) and “ rigor” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985 as cited in Whitley & Kite, 2012). Validity and reliability are significant to ensuring the quality of the qualitative research (Berg, 2004) Thus, Golafshani (2003) concluded that reliability and validity are abstracted as trustworthiness, rigor and quality in the qualitative study. Validity and reliability are determine whether the success or not success of a research paper. In qualitative research, verification is one of the ways to increasing validity and reliability so the research is rigor. (Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers, 2002).
This information may not be possible to capture in a rightful way using surveys and statistics (Corbin and Strauss, 1998: 11), thus a qualitative method is more suitable than quantitative. As argued by Corbin and Strauss (1998:11), qualitative research methodology is useful when obtaining an understanding of the nature of integration and individual experiences, since this enables the researcher to interpret the thoughts and feelings within the given context. Within qualitative research, focus is directed towards how the respondents describe their social reality (Bryman, 2012: 341), which is what this study seeks to understand in order to answer the research question. Further, another reason behind why quantitative data will not be used in this study is related to the risk that the respondents and the researcher might put themselves in, by collecting data on sensitive and sometimes controversial topics. Furthermore, using qualitative data is also suitable in order to fill the existing research gap on this specific topic.
In the process of conducting research, they are exposed to many threats which include physical threat. This form of threat is evident in violent research settings (Lee, 1993). This could be presentational where the researcher’s presence incites hostility towards the research, the research participant and any other person or anonymous where the research is in a dangerous environment to conduct research. An ethical approach to circumventing or dealing with this threat is to withdraw from the research setting and resort to secondary data for the research and none reactive sources. This however has an impact on originality of research since researchers may not be able to obtain primary data which is rich in content and detail for a research.
In other words, strategies were used to ensure the trustworthiness, including thick description (findings were presented to the participants in a detailed and clear understanding of the study), member checking (every participants were allowed with an opportunity to review their personal accounts and check the reliability, validity and the compliance with their meanings), and researcher’s position (Merriam, 2002, p. 31). The researcher made sure to avoid bias from his position in the study. Furthermore, data were gathered from various sources (interviews, observations, field notes, documents) to guarantee corroborating evidence and strengthen the trustworthiness of the research (Creswell, 2013). According to Laperrière (1997), to ensure the reliability of a research, it is desirable to proceed to the analysis of the same research object by a triangulation of data sources and instruments. For the triangulation of data sources, in addition to the 10 women principals, the researcher interviewed 15 teachers, 1 school inspector, 2 inspectorate’s counsellors, 2 school counsellors, 7 parents and 7 students.
This method is the mostly used. In the face to face method, the questionnaire is administered face to face to the subject either by the researcher himself or his assistant. The questionnaires are either filled on the spot and given back to the researcher or the researcher comes back after some minutes, hours, days , weeks, or months to collect them .Some of the advantages of this method is that; 1. There is a guarantee that the questionnaire will get to its destination (respondents). 2.