Media Literacy: Literature Review

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Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literacy as a concept has proved to be both complex and dynamic, continuing to be interpreted and define in a multiplicity of ways (UNESCO, 2006). According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations Position Paper (2004), literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. As stated in an article by the National Statistics Office (NSO), the number of people who can read and write in any language or dialect in the Philippines has risen in 2010 compared to ten years ago. In addition to this, the National Capital Region (NCR) had the highest literacy rate at 99.7%, NSO noted. In 2012, 87% of female youths had basic literacy skills, compared to 92% of male youths in the world. Overall, 60% of all countries with data had youth literacy rates of 95% or higher, in accordance to the International Literacy Data (2014) of UNESCO Institute for Statistics. However, although the youths today are “born digital” and apparently conversant transposing across different media (Lim and Theng, 2011), there is no assurance that they are media literate. The most commonly used definition of media literacy has arrived at by participants at the Aspen Media Literacy Leadership Institute in 1992. It states that media literacy is "the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media in a variety of
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