1. Introduction The purpose of this section of the essay is to present the theoretical framework that will be employed and unpacked in completing my field of study, which seeks to investigate bias in media representations of conflict. The ways in which the media construct the news regarding conflict and peace are important. This is the case because society often depends on the media as a major source of information about conflicts. The main focus of this section seeks to unpack the journalistic techniques used by the media when representing conflict.
Sociology focuses on the impact of media on mass audiences. It is the scientific study of society and how structures in today’s society influence an individual. Auguste Comte, a French philosopher argued that the social world is based on a set of laws and these laws determined people’s actions and beliefs. As Ritzer discussed in ‘Introduction to Sociology’ sociology reveals that people are manipulated in society and by the media both locally and globally otherwise referred to the butterfly effect. Inevitably it is the owners and regulators of the media who determine what every society in the world is exposed to in terms of news, information, advertisements etc.
To understand the theories and concepts by certain authors you must first look at the key features of media and power. Each of these terms are easily defined and understood when used in separate contexts, but when used together they mean a different term altogether. Media and power is looking at how different parties are engaging in a struggle for a multiple of reasons including influence, control, legitimation, status and most important of all profit. Politicians and institutions have interesting relationships with the media, if we consider Rupert Murdoch, a multimillionaire, who is closely linked with many British politicians and who owns certain influential newspapers in the United Kingdom and worldwide. The revelation of the phone hacking
The word 'media ' is derived from the term 'medium ' which means 'carrier '. Thus, the media is a carrier of information to the masses. The renowned linguist and critic of the media, Noam Chomsky, defines media as a “system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace.”1 Among the many purposes that the media serves, is providing entertainment and information. Media coverage determines one 's perception of the world. Media can broadly be classified into two types – print media and electronic media.
Media coverage refers to the amount and quality of interest an event/issue gets on TV, radio, newspapers and the internet. The media is a ‘business of finding, constructing and selling “news”’, requiring ‘imme¬diacy and drama’ rather than precision (Kitzinger, 1996). Insight into media portrayal of issues requires study of this construction via a ‘highly interpretive and value-laden process’ based on ‘socially created collective universals and traditional understandings’ that frequently symbolize and strengthen stereotypes (Akhavan-Majid and Ramaprasad, 1998). It is thus essential for messages, in what is reported and commented, to incorporate not only what the reporter thinks should be incorporated, but also what others anticipate him to incorporate. It is significant hence, to comprehend the experience and situation on the other side of the fence, a nation in crisis, distressed and terrified.
Agenda- setting states that the menu of news and other information made available to the public by media decision-makers ultimately defines what is considered significant (McCombs, Shaw’s, 1972). In various studies, framing and agenda-setting are in many ways related. Both concepts are often associated since they both focus on how media draws the public’s eye to specific topics – in this way, they both set the agenda. But framing takes this a step further in the way in which the news is presented creates a frame for that information. While agenda-setting is primarily concerned with the media telling people which stories to think about, framing not only tells people what to think about but also how to think about those issues.
Media information has a huge impact of how people think about different society problems and subjects. Many opinions can change because of what the media tells the audience. Freedom of speech is a vital of democratic structure and humans rights, but on the other hand media can be misused for propaganda purposes such as spread rumours and create more tense in a conflict (Kuusik, 2010, The Role of the Media in Peace
Media can be defined as the main means of mass communication. It acts as an essential part of society. Allowing us to be informed and feel included. Forms of media have changed throughout the years enormously and with that said, has increased with importance. Media helps society form opinions on everyday events.
The media influence is a powerful tool that is used by global corporations and influential decision making institutions in the world as a tool to determine what political and cultural patterns should prevail, and judges what is inferior and what is superior in terms of cultural values. In the subject of culture and media, Tomlinson stated that the so-called term ‘imperialistic media’ massively affect any culture they gain access to. In addition, the research labeled ‘media imperialism’ is conducted at the level of political-economic or institutional analysis and how the specific moment of cultural dominations is constantly received. The high availability of different technological advances possessed by the different media and communication companies such as satellites excessively fostered the dissemination of the multifarious media products across the globe.