Self-medication along with self-care was introduced in the 1980s continuing to develop until the 1990s when it was starting to become a health issue, and in the 2000s efforts were made to educate the public about medications and reducing the normalness of self medicating. (Bennadi, 2013). With healthcare becoming costlier in the United States and more scarce in developing countries self-medication becomes the only option for some people. It was put onto the pharmacist and other health professionals to “give proper instructions for medicines and explain for what it is prescribed so that it will be helpful for the patient to understand and making his own decisions” (Bennadi, 2013). However, even with health professionals discussing the drugs that their patients are consuming people still take medication how they see fit, as well as those who do not seek consultation at all or cannot afford it.
The numbers are no short of staggering. In 2003, an estimated 3.4 billion prescriptions were filled in retail drugstores and by mail order in the United States, which averages out to 11.7 prescriptions filled for each of the 290 million people in our country in a year (“Worst Pills”). Patients are unaware of the subsidies which drug companies receive, which causes doctors to overprescribe or mis-prescribe. This is a serious concern within our country with the amount of people demanding doctors to prescribe drugs with no oversight and before researching holistic remedies. The issues needed to be solved are doctor’s temptations to over-prescribe because of money at stake, problems with pharmaceutical and drug companies needing to make money back
As a society, we rely greatly on prescription medications to treat medical conditions and alleviate pain. Growing up, I always had the tendencies to avoid medication unless medically necessary. Fortunately, I was a very healthy child that rarely relied on any type of medication. As I got older, I noticed some of my family members having to take medication on a daily basis. I quickly realized that many people need prescription drugs in order to maintain their health when dealing with life-threatening conditions including high-blood pressure and high cholesterol.
Preventatives for Medication Errors Administration of medications has become more complex and the process more exacting. About 15% of adverse events occurring in hospitals are related to medication. An estimated 98,000 people die every year from medical errors in U.S. hospitals, and a significant number of those deaths are associated with medication errors (Tzeng, Yin & Schneider, 2013). About 700,000 emergency department visits and 120,000 hospitalizations are due to ADEs annually ("Medication safety basics," August ). These errors occur commonly when the nurse becomes easily distracted and loses focus on the task at hand.
With this case study I will attempt to offer clarification to the issue of medication mistakes being dispensed at HMO pharmacy. The fact that rates of dispensing errors are usually low there are some additional progresses in the pharmacy distribution systems that need some adjustments. Because pharmacies dispense such extraordinary volumes of medications that even a low error rate can render enormous volumes of lawsuits totaling even larger sums of payouts. Research also needs to be done with dispensing errors in out-patient health-care sites in community pharmacies within the USA and Europe.
One example of this type of clinical practice when a PWD refuse to take prescribed medication is ‘covert medication administration’. Covert medication administration (CMA) is the process of concealing medications in food or beverages to prevent detection and is used for patient without their consent because of presumed lack of decisional capacity to give or refuse consent. This is prevalent in residential aged care facilities (RACF), especially in patients suffering from dementia. According to Abdool (2017), more than 70% of healthcare professionals (HCPs) faced the decision to CMA. Significantly, almost all are in unison that CMA is justified on certain occasions.
Doctors are prescribing opioids to patients for chronic pain which has led patients to misuse and become addicted, causing a severe epidemic with this growing society. Costing both governmental and private health insurers estimated billions of dollars annually, opioid abuse has been known to cause insurance costs to increase due to liability claims and government agencies assisting with social services. State monitoring program systems have urged prescribing physicians to use proper precautions to check their databases prior to prescribing painkillers. There have been guidelines which have been put in place to monitor all types of opioids and dosages being prescribed by physicians for patients making them aware of the consequences if these guidelines are not followed. Aside from doctors overprescribing painkillers, there are concerns of the
When instructed to take medicines prescribed by doctors, there is rarely any second thought put in before taking those pills. Knowing the side effects of your medications and knowing proper dosages is something that should be done religiously. Opiate overdoses have become one of the leading causes of death in America, this is largely due to doctors not following policy and prescribing addictive narcotics for inappropriate ailments, which leads to addiction, and can destroy the lives of those around them. Patients should be able to trust doctors and know that they are in safe hands, however it now seems as this is not always the case. Doctors are overprescribing addictive medicines and failing to follow proper policy for prescribing those medicines.
In the article “Brief Research Report Defining Chronic Pain Ethics” it discusses the current issues in the diagnosis and treatments of chronic pain. A program called The Pain Action Initiative: A National Strategy (PAINS) conducted several focus groups in five cities in the US, including;Seattle, Tampa, Boston, Chicago, and San Diego . These groups consisted of people with pain, providers, insurance and pharmaceutical industry representatives, law enforcement agents, and advocacy groups who came up with various issues dealing with chronic pain. The goal was to identify current issues dealing with chronic pain. The groups came up with six main subjects which included: disparities, quality care, trained professionals, opioids use and addiction,
According to estimates, at least 1.5 million preventable medication errors and adverse drug events occur each year in the United States. One-third of all medication errors occur during the administration phase of medication delivery (Durham, 2015). Medication safety is freedom from preventable harm with medication use; therefore, nurses must promote patient safety by understanding their contributions to the prevention of medication error (Choo, Hutchinson, & Bucknall, 2010). Additionally, a medication error is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional. Thus, to promote medication safety, nurses must understand their roles in proper medication management and identify challenges that associated with medication safety.