Melenky FL: A differential diagnosis between certain types of infectious gangrene of the skin, with particular reference to hemolytic streptococcal gangrene and bacterial synergistic gangrene. Surg Gynecol Obstet 56:842 – 867, 1993. 19. Campbell JC: Fournier’s gangrene. Br J Urol 27: 106, 1955.
Fungal diseases have been recently introduced into the medical field. Fungi are a part of the domain Eukarya, where it once was considered in the plant kingdom. The domain Eukarya is consistent with eukaryotic organisms that contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Fungal diseases are more difficult to treat compared to antibiotics for bacterial diseases because the fungus and the host are eukaryotic organisms. Therefore, any treatment of the fungus may affect the host too and can develop resistance to antifungal medication.
ABSTRACT Bacterial conjunctivitis occurs in persons of all races, although differences in frequencies may be reflected by geographical variations of pathogen prevalence.The study was therefore taken up to detect the prevalence of bacterial and fungal pathogens causing occular infections and to study their antibiotic resistant profiles. A total of 44 kerato-conjunctivitis samples were collected, out of which, 31/44 (73%) were fungal isolates . The prevalence of fungal isolates was as follows- 7 Aspergillus fumigatus (22.5%), 3 Aspergillus flavus (9.67%), 4 Aspergillus nidulans (12.9%), 7 Aspergillus niger (22.5%), 10 Fusarium sps. (32.25%). A total of 39/44 (86.36%) bacterial isolates were obtained in this study.
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
Plant that has a fungus can be called as a host whether the association is beneficial or not. Many terms such as symbiont, associate, mycobiont and inhabitant can be used to label mycorrhizal fungi inside the plants, but it is just acceptable to address them as fungi (Brundrett, 2004). 2.2 The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi The seedlings of many rain forest species are mycotrophic and their
Senegalia berlandieri (Acacia berlandieri) commonly known as Guajillo, is a legume small tree or shrub growing in northern Mexico and southern Texas. It belongs to the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family. It has seeds born in pods, compound leaves with numerous leaflets, and the roots are associated to bacteria that symbiotically fix nitrogen. This plant produce foliage and that are usually abundant in nitrogen compounds with a good indispensable amino acid composition. In addition.
Staphylococcus aureus is the usual pathogen, and other organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are sometimes involved. Occasionally, anaerobic organisms (clostridia, anaerobic streptococci or Bacteroides) appear in contaminated wounds (Nayagam, 2010). In Yangon General Hospital, the common bacterial pathogens isolated in open fracture wound infection were Pseudomonas species (31.15%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Other organisms such as Coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterococcus species, Proteus species, Citrobacter species, Klebsiella species, Beta haemolytic streptococci were found in open fracture wound infection (Aye-Mya-Thu, 2010). Open fracture management is a complex and integrated approach, including preoperative prophylactic antibiotics, thorough irrigation and debridement, fracture stabilization, and postoperative antibiotic management.
Since the development of the germ theory, many scientists, working with plant and animal infecting microbes, have focused their research efforts on the microbes that cause disease (Ainsworth, 1981). Endophytes (fungi and/or bacteria that live within the tissues of plants) largely appear to be the inverse of plant pathogens since generally they represent cryptic benign infections of healthy plants. The term endophyte (Gr. endon, within; phyton, plant) was first coined by De Bary (De Bary, 1866) and an endophyte is a bacterial or fungal microorganism, which spends the whole or part of its life cycle colonizing inter- and/or intra-cellularly inside the healthy tissues of the host plant, typically causing no apparent symptoms of disease (Wilson,
Pharmacology is study of medicines that obtained from natural sources. The plants are the lushest source for drugs traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplement, folk medicines, pharmaceuticals intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Hammer et al, 1999). The products of herbal and natural were used as folk medicine for centuries throughout the world, but there are relatively lower frequencies of adverse reactions to plant preparation related to modern conventional pharmaceutical, this coupled with their reduced cost, is encouraging for both the consuming public and national institutions to consider plant medicines as alternatives to synthetic drugs (Nair et al 2005). The medicinal plants are the richest source of antimicrobial agents. Plants are used medicinally in different countries as a source of many potent and powerful drugs.