When the First Crusade was launched, Jerusalem churches were under the Muslim rule. When Pope Urban II was elected, he found himself the head of a reformed movement to win back the holy land of Jerusalem, and relieve churches of the Muslim rule. Emperor Alexius, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, requested help from Pope Urban because the Muslims were killing his Christian people. Since the Muslims were in command of Jerusalem, the violent acts happening in the Byzantine Empire by the Muslims were happening in Jerusalem as well. The First Crusade, which was the most successful, was launched by Pope Urban II in 1095 when he was newly elected into papacy.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought from 1095 to 1487. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios I, sent someone to request Pope Urban II to assist them with military support against the Turks. Pope Urban II quickly asked Catholic soldiers to join the first crusade. The first goal was to give the pilgrims access to areas in the Holy Land that Muslims were controlling. A more long-term goal would be to have the Eastern and Western parts of Christendom reunite.
At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II gave his famous sermon beckoning the Christians to join together with the Byzantines and recapture Jerusalem, from the Muslims control. Exaggerating the anti-Christian acts of the Muslims, Urban exhorted Christendom to go to war for the Sepulcher, promising that the journey would count as full penance and that the homes of the absent ones would be protected by a truce.i Pope Urban II sermon spurred many people ranging from the ordinary citizens to the elite military, to join and fight for the Holy Land. In 1096, the People 's Crusade also known as the Popular Crusade took place. Feeling inspired Pope Urban 's sermon, a French man called Peter the Hermit became a leader for the Crusades.
In conclusion Muckrakers brought change to society by bringing to light what was in the darkness. By exposing how child labor had a negative effect on children and society. The meat packing industry was busted for there unsanitary ways. The railroad was exposed for taking from those who could not fight on their own.
The Magna Carta had a strong effect on the English people of the middle ages; it protected them from corruption of the king as well as other law officials. To understand the Magna Carta, we must first look at what was happening before it was composed, that lead up to the making of this document. The Crusades, also known as the “Holy Wars” were taking place during this time. King Richard preferred to fight in wars over dealing with the governmental side of ruling a country, and he went out to join the fighting.
In 1095 on November 27 in Clermont,France, Pope Urban the II called for a Crusade to help the Byzantines and free the city of Jerusalem. The official start date was set as August 15, 1096. This order little did he know would be the cause of a battle that turned into 9 war’s that last for nearly 200 years. This event in history clearly has a outcome that is way more negative than positive. Have you ever imagined being in the middle of a 200 year war people dropping like flies just because of an argument over one city?
Crusaders did many inappropriate things that lost people’s interest like being sidetracked and doing unnecessary things. Even with this reputation, it’s not the only thing they did wrong. A different reason why the Crusades were negative is because they would kill the innocent. In Document 7, it states, “-the crusading knights were often abused and co,,ottoes atrocities against Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jews and Muslims in the areas through which they passed.” This “-made them hated by all groups throughout the region.
Throughout the expansion of Europe, the power of the popes became higher. Many citizens, including Pope Alexander fought to do away with Kings and Queens and keep only the Popes. Pope Alexander hoped to win the argument and that popes should be in charge because his greedy heart wanted to gain power and control. In addition to continuing Pope Innocent IV’s legacy, Pope Alexander also worked to bring communities
This can be seen in “Congress Commits to Fighting Religious Persecution” from CBN News, which talks a bill signed by former US president Barack Obama that establishes more frequent actions against terrorism and religious persecution (Congress Commits to Fighting Religious Persecution). This not only directly helps Coptic Christians, which are oppressed, but is a step in the right direction in fighting all persecution. The bill also creates a master list of people imprisoned for their faith, which can be used to integrate conversations about religious freedom in foreign policy (Congress Commits to Fighting Religious Persecution). Not only should others stand up for those persecuted, but those who are oppressed should fight for themselves. According to “Egyptian Christians Living in Fear for the Future”, despite many Coptic Christians fearing the future, many are becoming stronger.
They killed 2 bodyguards and threated to kill the Queen, because of that on Oct 6 the King, Queen and their eldest son went back to Paris, surrounded by 60,000 people. It seems as if the hatred towards the monarchs made the citizens each other’s allies. The people belonging to the Third Estate only wanted their leaders to help improve their living conditions. The abuse of power by the higher authority angered millions. The people wanted a republic because of lacking leaders.
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.
Allen Cutler’s journal article delves in to the concept of military conflict and conversion to Christianity during the First Crusade. The author states that it was the intent of Pope Urban II who inherited his interest in crusading against Muslims from Pope Gregory VII, to Christianize Muslims, by words and example. There have been those who have argued Urban II had no interest in conversion, but Allen, counters their assumptions by presenting three document sources that imply that during Urban’s speech at Clermont he broached the subject of conversion, by referring to the Turks as “a race utterly alienated from God.” Allen surmises that Urban the implication is they were not “converted to Christianity” and therefore conversion was foremost on Pope Urban’s mind. The Pope also wanted to reinstall papal
The Crusades were a series of holy wars that took place from 1095-c.1300 to reclaim the holy land , although it became a fight for wealth and power. The Crusades were nicknamed the “holy war” because the semitic religions fought for Jerusalem. These nine Crusades were all brutal wars that caused civilian casualties, this occurred during the Dark Ages. The start of the Crusades began when Pope Urban proposed the idea to try to help fellow Eastern Christians against the Muslims. Civilians and Christians mainly thought because they believed it freed the soul from sin and they fought for spirituality.
The Crusades was a turning point in history because it depleted the population, made the relationships between religions very strained, and introduced a variety of new ideas and products to the Europeans/Crusaders. The Crusades began after Emperor Alexius requested Pope Urban III to find him a couple of hundred mercenaries who would help him take back the Holy lands after the Muslims had taken it over and had limited their access to their biblical sites. He supported their claim to the crusades by saying that God owns all the land and that it was meant for his children, but since the Muslims stole and inhabited his land, so they must take it back. Pope Urban III gave a speech to all of western christendom, saying, “This royal city, therefore, situated at the center of the world, is now held captive by His enemies, and is in subjection to those who do not know God, to the worship of the heathens. She seeks therefore and desires to be liberated, and does not cease to implore you to come to her aid.”.
In 1198, Pope Innocent III preached the Fourth Crusade to reinstate Christian lands and recapture Jerusalem. Under Innocent III, for the first time in the history of the Crusades, the pope taxed the church in order to collect money for the war. In this Crusade, advocates followed Richard the Lionheart’s procedure and travel by sea rather than by land. As a result, crusaders leased vessels from Venice. Instead of going to the Holy Land, the Crusaders attacked Zara and Constantinople in order to acquire money to pay their debt and fulfill selfish reasons.