Biological Warfare In Medieval Warfare

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In medieval siege, when conventional tactics and weapon were not sufficient, they often resorted to unconventional tactics and moves such as food poisoning, water poisoning, throwing infected dead bodies and animal carcasses into the walls of the besieged town, the kind of medieval biological warfare. In the medieval period, most of the towns were fortified, surrounded by tick and high walls. It was very difficult, sometimes even with a siege machines to enter into such a fortified town. However, most of these towns supplied with a fresh water outside the walls. This allowed besieger to resort to a very weird way. They threw into the source of fresh water a few dead bodies from the people who had died of plague or some other decease.…show more content…
This practice in the siege of towns are often used by the Ottomans. The Ottomans had a unique principle which were held during the conquest. If the besieged town surrendered without resistance. Citizens were guaranteed security and trade. However, if defense of the town refuse to surrender, Ottomans would be ruthless, also during the siege and after the conquest. That meant the poisoning the water by trowing dead corpses and animal carcasses and spreading decease into the walls. This practice was soon accepted by Europeans and the poisoning food and water as well as spread decease among the defenders was often seen in medieval warfare in…show more content…
Its use does not require special skills or training . It is a ball with usually four spikes, provided to cause serious cuts and stings when the enemy steps on them. Caltrop was very successful tool in slowing the enemy advance of infantry, cavalry or war elephants. The origin of the use of caltrop dates back in fourth century BC. At the Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC in Persia some chroniclers claim that Persian king Darius III use some foot-traps against the army of Alexander the Great. However, after the death of Alexander the Great, his heirs/successors divided the country into several Hellenistic monarchies which had fought each other. It was noted that they used wooden balls whit spikes in these battles for supremacy. Romans adopted this weapon from Hellenistic armies and successfully used it against the enemies. Vegetius, the Roman writer wrote that war-chariot used by Mitridates of Antiochus At first, causing fear among the Romans, but later, the Romans throw caltrop on the field of battle, and horses that draw chariots running full speed into them and were

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