1% glucose, 1% maltose and 1% lactose all progressively get positive results by changing colours to reddish brown at the end of this experiment. In this case the aldehyde functional group that is present in the products (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) in this reaction is able to reduce copper in the presence of alkali and this produces colour changes while converting to an aldose sugar. Honey is made of fructose and glucose which instantly turned brown after the test-tube was placed in the boiling water because of its active aldehyde and carbonyl group. The copper (II) sulphate present in the Benedict’s solution reacts with electrons from the aldehyde group which results in a redox reaction to from cuprous oxide, a red brown precipitate that seen in all of the above mentioned solutions (Hill, 1982). Beer also gave positive results because it contains aldehydes and ketones (i.e.
After a gram stain was done unknown #257 was identified as a gram positive organism because when observed under the microscope the organism appeared purple with cocci in clusters. The organism was also catalase positive which means that it produced enzyme catalase and bubbled when hydrogen peroxide was added to it. Three test were conducted based on the result of the gram staining procedure. Blood agar with a Novobiocin disk was chosen as well as DNase (DNA) and Mannitol Salts (MSA) agar. The Blood agar is a bright red, opaque plate and the streaking or the inoculation technique was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one.
Aequorin was the first known photo-protein. Bacterial Bacterial Luminescence consists of the oxidation of a molecule called FMNH2 (a reduced riboflavin phosphate) (see figure 1). This is molecule is oxidised along with oxygen, a long-chain aldehyde, and a two-subunit
It was able to support itself as a thin sheet, but easily fragmented when a small force was applied. 3mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide and 1mL of water, effectively 4mL of 1.5M Sodium Hydroxide, was added to a small amount of Indigo, forming a paste. Sodium Hydrosulphite the acted as a reducing agent, converting Indigo into Leucoindigo, an acidic phenolic compound that reacts with hydroxide ions provided by Sodium Hydroxide to form a water-soluble salt. The solution turns colourless, and the dying process can begin. A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C.
Aromaticity can be termed as a chemical property of conjugated cycloalkenes. Aromaticity deals with the uncommon stability of benzene and its derivatives, which is caused by the ability of the electrons in the p-orbitals to delocalize and act as a framework to generate planar molecules. A molecule is only considered aromatic due to the fact that it is cyclic, that it follows the Huckel’s Rule and lastly that each element must have a p-orbital. Antioxidants play and important role in health. It can be defined as a group of organic chemicals and have been used to hinder the process of oxidative degradation of food products, fats and oils and polymers.
Vinyl acetate is produced via three different routes which is from acetylene, ethylene and acetaldehyde. The usage of acetylene and aldehyde as reactants for vinyl acetate manufacture was extensively replaced by ethylene due to the advantages the latter had. Vinyl acetate is the monomer for principally polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and other polymer such as vinyl chloride acetate and ethylene-vinyl acetate. Therefore polymerization reaction
Alginate is generally available as alginic acid, sodium salt that is regularly called sodium alginate. It is a linear polysaccharide that typically isolated from numerous strains of marine brown seaweed and algae, in this manner the name is alginate. The copolymer comprises of two uronic acids which are D-mannuronic acid (M) and L-guluronic acid (G). That is because it is the skeletal component of the algae and it has the decent property of being strong but then flexible. The most ideal in preparation of sodium alginate is by adding the powder to agitated water rather than vice verso to avoid formation of clumps.
Nostril Microflora on NA plate-gram stain Figure 4. Nostril Microflora on MSA plate-gram stain Figure 5. Nostril Microflora on PYCa plate- gram stain The following table 1 were the results of the cell morphology, catalase test and the gram stain; Source of colony Staphylococcus aureus Enterococcus faecalis NA MSA PYCa Colony description
The Beetroot contains a red pigment known as betanin. This pigment was first discovered by schudel in the year 1918. They are classified under one of the two categories of betalains; Betacyanins and They are the most common in the plant kingdom. Betanin has also been classified as an anthocyanin related to the pigments of the petals of many flowering plants but different from typical anthocyanins because it contains nitrogen (Pucher, et al., 1937). The absorbance of this red pigment; betanin was tested in this lab in relation to the membrane permeability of the beet plant.
Discussion: End point in this acid-base titration experiment refers to the point where the chemical reaction has reached its conclusion and no additional titrant should be added. The end point of this experiment can be obtained when the indicator used changes colour. For example colourless to light pink when phenolphthalein is used and red to orange and subsequently yellow when methyl orange is used. Equivalence point, also known as stoichiometric point in an acid-base titration refers to the point where the reacting acid and base is in equal proportions. In the graph plotted, pH against volume of NaOH, the graph becomes nearly vertical at the equivalence point.