Three samples were prepared for the analysis. The first sample was ammonium chloride, and 20.2 mg sample was used for the thermal analysis. The second sample was a mixture of ammonium chloride and magnesia, and 8.2 mg mixture (the molar ratio of NH4Cl:MgO was 3:1) was used for the thermal analysis. The third sample was a mixture of ammonium chloride, magnesia and potassium chloride, and 9.5 mg mixture (the molar ratio of NH4Cl:MgO:KCl was 3:1:1) was used for the thermal analysis. The samples were heated from room temperature to 750 oC with the nitrogen flow rate of 40 mL•min-1 and the heating rate of 10 oC•min-1.
Graphene growth occurs due to the precipitation of the graphite from carbon species within the metal. Yu et al. grew few-layer graphene sheets on polycrystalline Ni foils. The foils were first annealed in hydrogen and then exposed to a CH4-Ar-H2 environment at atmospheric pressure for 20 mins at a temperature of 10000C. The foils were then cooled at different rates between 200C/s and 0.10C/s.
Figure 4.1 –Indication of various points in the diagram Figure 4.1 shows the schematic diagram of a cooling system with numbering at each point throughout the system to indicate where the temperatures and pressures vary, heat loads and flow varies with respect to the speed of the engine. It is not a model just a assumption that cooling system contains minimum apparatus to run. So, through these assumptions a program was developed to evaluate the operating values of cooling system of any design. 1 P¬2 = P1 – ρg[(K12(ṁ/ρA12)2/2g) – Z1 + Z2] 2 P3 = Pamb + ρgZsurge 3 P¬4 = P3 – ρg[(K34(ṁ/ρA34)2/2g) – Z3 + Z4] 4 P5 = P4 + ρgHpump 5 P¬6 = P5 – ρg[(K56(ṁ/ρA56)2/2g) – Z5 + Z6] 6 P¬7 = P6 – ρg[(K67(ṁ/ρA12)2/2g) – Z6 + Z7] 7 P¬6a = P6 – ρg[(K66a(ṁrec/ρA66a)2/2g)
It involves liquid and vapour phases. The liquid feed enters the distillation column and is subjected to heat, which vaporises a fraction of feed. The vaporised product goes through a reflux and together with the liquid feed is heated up. This increases the purity of the distillate; usually the product chemical industries desire. As a chemical engineer designated to design a distillation column for IPA recovery, the design statement developed is a follows: “To design a tray distillation column to recover 100% Isopropanol with at least a purity of 30% and a column diameter of at least 1 foot.” 4.1.2.
Refined rutile from the ore is reduced with petroleum derived coke in fluidized bed reactor at 1000*c then the mixture is treated with chlorine gas affording titanium tetrachloride ticl4 and other volatile chlorides are separated by fractional distillation TiCl4 is reduced by liquid magnesium or sodium (15–20% excess) at 800–850 °C in a stainless steel to ensure complete reduction. Then the mixture is subjected to a hydraulic load to produce blocks called
(2007) stated that when cast with a high-absorption coarse aggregate, the addition of silica fume results in a reduction in shrinkage at all ages. Mazloom et al. (2004) studied the replacement of cement with 0%, 6%, 10%, and 15% of silica fume and concluded that the percentage of silica fume replacement did not have a significant influence on the total shrinkage of concrete, but the autogenous shrinkage increased as the increase of silica fume Silica fumes used in this project are obtained from a local dealer
Tolonate® HDB 75 BX, derived from hexamethylene diisocyanate was purchased by Perstorp. Acaí berry polyol powder was kindly provided by the Laboratory of Eco-composites from the Federal University of Pará, Brazil. The extraction method was previously described28 . 2.2 Polyurethane preparation PU was prepared by a two-step procedure in a nitrogen atmosphere. In the first step, the synthesis was carried out in a batch reactor by a mixture of polyol and HDB at a heating rate of 10 oC/min to 75 oC/min by stirring at 100 rpm and 4 kgf/cm2 of pressure in order to form an NCO-terminated prepolymer.
The implication of this is that Sulphur is stable in the presence of water and in acidic conditions free from oxidizing agents. In alkaline conditions, it is unstable and tends to disproportionate to give HS–, S2– (and polysulfides), SO42−, and other oxidation products. In industrial applications, these reactions are slow and take place only in hot and very alkaline media. Sulphur is usually a major product of sulphur mineral oxidation at pH of 4.6. Increase in pH to 9 accompanied by an increase in potential results in the formation of sulphate ions (Hamilton and Woods, 1981).
The nitric acid that had a pH level of 1 was able to rust the metal screw more quickly and effectively than the bleach. Analysis and Discussion As per my research question, “How does the pH level affect the corrosion rate of metal screw?” my experiment had the answers. From the experiment’s results, solutions with lower pH levels, strong acids, cause more effective corrosion than solutions with increasing pH levels. Neutral pH levels do not affect the metal screw and does not cause corrosion in a day (24 hours). However, I feel that a metal screw placed in distilled water for a long period of time will be able to cause
About 5 gm of sample was slowly passed along the wall of the funnel till the tip of the pile formed and touches the bottom of the funnel. A circle was designed around the sample base and the radius of the powder cone was measured. Angle of repose was determined from the average radius using the following formula14, 15 θ = tan-1 (h/r) Where, θ = angle of repose h = height of the pile r = average radius of the powder cone. 6.4.2. Bulk Density: Apparent bulk density was determined by placing pellets into measuring cylinder and