The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started. Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
They are proteins that are complexly folded to allow smaller molecules to fit into them; this active site is where substrate molecules bind. Enzymes must collide with one another at a precise position with enough activation energy. The active site must bind to the reacting molecule, or the substrate (1). Enzyme-catalyzed reactions require lower activation energy. The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2).
The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
Coagulation system is a process to prevent blood loss from the body. Hemostasis process occurred in three phases, vascular platelet phase, activation of the coagulation cascade and the activation of a control mechanism. Mostly, the system is triggered by a damaged blood vessel. After vascular injury, rapid vasoconstriction will serve to reduce blood flow. At the same time, von Willebrand factor (vWf) will act as a bridge between endothelial collagen and platelet surface receptor glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) which will promote platelet adhesion (Green, 2006).
Once eaten, the body converts ALA to EPA and DHA, the two types of omega-3 fatty acids more readily used by the body and which serve as important precursors for lipid-derived modulators of cell signaling, gene expression and inflammatory processes. It is important to denote that when discussing omega-3 fatty acids, their dietary origin is quite important. Omega-3 fats from plants, such as those in flax seed oil, are enriched in ALA. As indicated above, ALA must first be converted to EPA (requiring three independent reactions) and then to DHA (requiring an additional four reactions). Omega-3 fats from fish are enriched in EPA and DHA and thus do not need to undergo the complex conversion steps required of ALA. In addition, the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is inefficient in individuals consuming a typical Western diet rich in animal
This luciferin is a tetrapyrrole and differs to chlorophyll due to the type of metal ions present in its structure. Light emission from Dinoflagellates is pH-sensitive. This is mainly due to two factors. Due to the tertiary structure of the luciferase, a change in H+ ion concentration causes the luciferase to lose conformation, exposing its active site to the luciferin. Also, the luciferin molecule can be protected until the pH is suitable for it to bind to the protein.
There are two separate clotting pathways, the intrinsic and the extrinsic. These eventually join together to form the common pathway. The adsorption of the components of the contact system facilitates the activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. This results in the formation of thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomers. The thrombin also promotes platelet aggregation.
There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding: uniform binding, which has strong substrate binding, and differential binding, which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity, while differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity. Most proteins seem to use the differential binding mechanism to reduce the Ea, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. The substrate first binds weakly, then the enzyme changes conformation increasing the affinity to the transition state and stabilizing it, so reducing the activation energy to reach