Memory, in general means ‘remembering’. There are so many different types of memory inside a single PC. Computer memory supposed to help the computer to keep the data when it had not been processed yet. It is also responsible to store the data or applications on a permanent or temporary basis. There are two types of memory that can be classified as primary memory and secondary memory.
The speed of the computer is measure by the processor which is the brain of the machine. The faster is the processor, the computer can handle multitasking activities. In addition, the memory of the computer is in Gigabytes (Gb) which is the measure of computer data storage. There are 2 several kinds of memory in the computers, the most important are the hard drive memory and the hard drive memory is how the physical space in the computer, how many files, photos, and software the computer can storage. Usually this storage ranges from 128 Gigabytes to 4 Terabytes.
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS INTRODUCTION 1.Direct Memory Access is an input / output technique which provides direct access to the memory while the microprocessor is disabled temporarily. 2. The transfer of data between memory and input/ output devices is an important aspect of governing the performance of computer system. 3. Data Memory Access allow input/ output devices to send or receive data directly to or from main memory by bypassing the CPU to speed up memory operations.
w.britannica.com/technology/multiprocessing Multiprocessing, in computing, a mode of operation in which two or more processors in a computer simultaneously process two or more different portions of the same program (set of instructions). Multiprocessing is typically carried out by two or more microprocessors, each of which is in effect a central processing unit (CPU) on a single tiny chip. Supercomputers typically combine thousands of such microprocessors to interpret and execute instructions. The primary advantage of a multiprocessor computer is speed, and thus the ability to manage larger amounts of information. Because each processor in such a system is assigned to perform a specific function, it can perform its task, pass the instruction set on to the next processor, and begin working on a new set of instructions.
It was in use between 1940 and 1958. The problem with the first generation computers was that it could only perform one task at a time and was large in size. The second generation computer was introduced between 1959 and 1966. The computer uses transistors and magnetic tape as a storage memory. This transistor generates lesser heat and also carries out faster operations.
Device drivers control is a particular device that is attached to the computer. While the operating systems usually collects services for other systems managing their resources. Utilities are programs that guide their users on how to use and maintain the computers. Other than these major software, there are other major ones such as web applications, Java Script, server software, plugins, microcode and desktop applications. Software’s can be off-the-shelf softwares or those that build according to the user’s preference.
These instructions might be internal commands, such as updating the system clock, or a response to external input received from the keyboard or mouse. Despite the fact that there are various sorts of programming made both with open source and restrictive guidelines, the programming generally comes down to a couple of essential standards. The first type of computer software is system software. System software is programs that are responsible to manage and to operate computer hardware as well as to provide mechanism for the functioning of application software. System software ensures that operations such as saving data on hard disk and transferring data to CD-ROM.
2.1 Microcontroller A micro-controller is computer on a single integrated circuit-containing a processor core, memory, and programmable peripherals. It is a compact microcomputer, designed to control the operation of embedded electronic systems. The important part of micro-controller is its processor (just like all computers have) and memory, and some input or output pins that user can control. Working Microcontroller has pins to connect input device in order to get the input and output pins for controlling output devices (such as LED or LCD Display) to exhibit the final process. Most programmable microcontrollers that are used today are embedded in other consumer products or machinery including phones, peripherals,
AN ABSTRACT ON MESOCHRONOUS PIPELINING PARALLEL COMPUTING is a form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved at the same time. There are many alternatives to achieve parallel computing, namely 1. Parallel processing: In computers, parallel processing is the processing of program instructions by dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program in less time. In the earliest computers, only one program ran at a time. With single-CPU, single-core computers, it is possible to perform parallel processing by connecting the computers in a network.
Computer is an electronic device that can process and stored data, computer comes from the term to compute, meaning to calculate. It is one word which is used frequently these days, and it is common knowledge that the wide spread use of computers is having a tremendous effect on all aspects of human life, both from an individual and a social point of view. With good reason, the computer is often compared with the human brain. Like the brain that devised it, a computer can take in data and process it. It can store the data either in raw form or in the form of processing results, and can deliver the raw of processed data to the outside world and demand.