To a large extent it is better to live spontaneously. Mencius and Daoist have different interpretations on spontaneity. Mencius emphasizes on expanding humans’ innate good nature, which leads to spontaneous moral cultivation. On the other hand, Daoist spontaneity is emptying ourselves and follow the nature of the outside world without human interference. In this essay, I will first describe the concept of spontaneity in both Mencian and Daoist views, and then I will argue that it is better to live spontaneously, in terms of psychological wellbeing and quality of decision in life.
Instead of the stolid, dogmatic focus on ruling cultural fixtures such as the church, humanists were more open-minded to the idea that people and their individual enterprises were much more interesting. There was diversity to thinking, to human endeavor that had never been considered before, and philosophers like Michel de Montaigne were open to the idea that this human activity was worth more consideration than ever considered before (Michel de Montaigne, 2014). Humankind’s place in the world became a much more secure, dominate force due to this writer’s ideas, and many others were later inspired to believe the
“Describe and rate the Strengths & Weaknesses of Daoism” Ordinarily, to begin to answer this question, one must understand the meaning of Daoism. In fact, Daoism or (Taoism) in China is the path, course, or way of the universe. Although its influence is in nature, the eternal Dao is believed to be hidden from empirical experience (Matthews 414). According to further research, “Daoism or Taoism, is indigenous religio-philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more 2,000 years. In the broadest sense, a Daoist attitude toward life can be seen in the accepting and yielding, the joyful and carefree sides of the Chinese character (www.brittannica.com).” Moreover, Laozi (lao Tzu), the sage of China believed to have been the author of “Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) and is regard as the founder of Daoism.
Daoism and Confucianism are very different philosophies. The thought of the two ruling together is very hard and unrealistic to imagine, but not impossible. Both believe in very basic morals such as, not stealing, cheating, lying, or killing. They also believe in treating people well. Daoism strongly believes every living thing including bugs are equal.
Some differences are their belief of gods, the goal of each religion, and the fact that Confucianism is more of a political system for society, while Daoism is more of a personal self improvement. Both religions have similar founders and stories of how the religion started. Confucius and Laozi, the founders of each religion, both wrote. After Confucius died, his followers collected his work and published it in a book called Analects. Laozi
There are many different views on whether people have free will, John Chaffee discusses four views of the subject: Determinism, Compatibilism, Indeterminism, and Libertarianism. Determinism is "The view that every event, including human actions, is brought by previous events in accordance with universal causal laws that govern the world. Human freedom is an illusion (Chaffee 4.1)". In his book, The Philosopher's Way, John Chaffe goes on to explain five theories supporting human behavior: Human Nature, Environmental Influences, Psychological Forces, Free Will, and Social Dynamics. The second view discussed by Chaffee is Compatibilism, which is "The view that all events, including human actions are caused.
The advocates of such theories claim that humans are born in a blank state, then they are filled with knowledge, beliefs, and nutrition upon which their future decisions will be based. In other words, we are the products of our environments. On the other hand, existentialism proposes that humans have complete free-well, and thus human behavior cannot be expected at any point. Like nurture theories, existentialism claims that we are born in a tabula rasa state as well, but in contrast it asserts that it is up to humans to decide the essence of their being. Based on those conflicting notions about human behavior, there has never been a grand theory that could fully explain the past behavior and precisely expect the future behavior of humans.
Another area where the two philosophies differ is in how they are handed down and taught. While both philosophies are centered on the knowledge and wisdom of a single teacher or master, they are presented in a variety of ways. Confucianism has a dialogic custom, lessons and teachings are presented as a dialog between the master (Confucius) and his students. Most of Confucian texts are simply recordings of question and answer sessions between mater and student, each with a specific lesson to impart. Daoism depends predominantly on the direct writings of Lao Tzu, its founder.
Also, only human beings can change themselves freely, whereas all other changes in nature are the result of some outside force. Mankind are the most powerful beings created from God, which is why they are the most dignified creatures. Also, Pico states that as a humanist he believes that knowledge should be through the senses, such as sight, hearing, touching, taste, and smelling; which is something only humans can truly use to learn and create with. In the “Oration on the Dignity of Man”, Pico states that “There is nothing to be seen more wonderful than man”, which truly illustrates his beliefs on mankind and the abilities we
In “Myth and Modern World” Campbell offers multiple relationships humans have with nature. He cites Chief Seattle stating “We are part of the earth and it is part of us.” (42), highly contrasting the adversarial relationship between humanity and nature defined by Frankenstein and “The Birthmark.” Campbell also mentions two other points of view that contrast the antagonistic relationship supported by Frankenstein and “The Birthmark.” In the Christian religion it is believed that nature is condemned and that humans have every right to manipulate nature as freely as humanity wishes because gave nature to them, giving humans, in this dynamic, full control over nature without consequences. While the Japanese hold the belief that, “natural impulse is not to be corrected but to be sublimated”(29), meaning they believe that nature can be modified to please humans, but can never be