Study characteristics and recidivism base rates in juvenile sex offender recidivism. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54(2), 197-212. Duwe, G., & Donnay, W. (2008). The impact of Megan's Law on sex offender recidivism: The Minnesota experience. Criminology, 46(2), 411-446.
America, the country with the highest rate of incarceration in the world, has its fair share of issues with in the system made to rehabilitate its prisoners. The issues involved within this system run deep and are often found to be a direct issue with how the system is formed. Although it wasn’t always this way, juveniles are treated separate in the eyes of the court and receive separate services from the rest of the jail and prison population. This new system often referred to as the Juvenile system has faced a series of hardships and has become just as dangerous and tedious as the regular court systems. This paper will look at how groups have formed within these institutions, how detention for juveniles can affect their future and their
According to Taxman (1999, 2004) while implementing EBP, probation officers conduct risk assessments, collaborate with offenders to create problem-oriented case plans addressing criminogenic needs, match offenders to appropriate services, model pro-social behavior, and use enhanced communication and motivational interviewing techniques to promote cognitive restructuring and behavioral change ( as cited in Taxman, 1999; Taxman, Shepardson, & Byrne, 2004). We have to dig into the lives of the offenders under probation supervision to find out what makes them tick, what makes them angry, what their issues are, what their hopes and dreams are and try to connect them with programs to support their needs. Probation officers are required to connect and engage with offenders more than in the past. The probation officer’s interaction and communication style is one the most important factors in reducing recidivism. While the ability to empathize is what makes probation officers most effective in their work, it also makes them more vulnerable, “because empathy is the pathway through which trauma is vicariously transferred” (Lewis, 2013).
In examining the role of expert testimony in criminal law cases, there are several factors to be considered; the most significant is the question of what weight is given to the expert witnesses’ testimony and what affect this has on the outcome. In cases to determine whether an offender ought to be labeled as a dangerous offender, these questions have reaching implications. The medicalization of deviancy, and the role of expert witnesses in presenting their psychological and psychiatric findings to the court, deeply affects the outcomes for the offenders involved. By medicalizing risk and relying on diagnoses such as psychopathy, the medical experts’ testimony contributes to the pathologizing of criminal individuals and leads to higher rates of dangerous offender designations.
The purpose of this literature review is to prove that drug court programs are an effective alternative to incarceration for people struggling with substance abuse issues. According to the Bureau of Justice statistics seventeen percent of prisoners at the state level were incarcerated due to drug related crimes. Eighteen percent of federal cases were related to drugs (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004). According to Lutze and Van Wormer the drug court model was formulated in response to the revolving cycle involved with substance addiction and crime. This model incorporated many different aspects of the judicial system such as judges, lawyers, probation officers, and social workers as well as traditional substance abuse treatment concepts.
Prisons, penitentiaries, correctional facilities and psychiatric forensic hospitals are in place to provide rehabilitation and treatment to offenders who have mental illnesses. Correctional facilities are high stress areas where many offenders may have conditions consequent on trauma and they could have labile emotions that may predispose to violence against other individuals and caregivers. Within the field of forensic nursing there is considerable debate about the significant aspects of the forensic nurse’s role. An imperative task for the forensic nurse is to complete an assessment of the offenders’ violence risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically review a journal article titled ‘Risk Assessment of Forensic Patients Nurses’ Role’
With reference with anger management, according to Breslin (2005) a domestic dispute has previously been examined with an interest in reoffender as it pertains to programs such as anger management. During this investigation, persons that had been convicted of such crimes; domestic violence crimes; and sentenced based on these charges, are recognized as being persons who indicated and completed programs such as anger management, which still triggered offenders to relapse. Things such as age, criminal history, and gender were taken into account, statistics were collected and it disclosed that persons who has prior domestic violence history are more prone to backsliding, which caused persons to reoffend. Corresponding with Buş (2009) it
If a person has committed a previous offence a harsher punishment must be issued. In the “Prison Recidivism: Towards Reduction, Rehabilitation and Reform” study, results showed that 44 percent of recidivists committed larceny, robbery and housebreaking 38 percent of recidivists committed narcotic-related crimes 53 percent were recidivists who committed robbery offences, 59 percent were recidivists who committed narcotic offences, 75 percent were recidivists who committed larceny, breaking and housebreaking offences and 31 percent were recidivists who committed person-related offences. The amount of convictions a person has is a good indication if he or she will recidivate. Without proper treatment and programs the offenders are released back into the neighborhoods they once wrecked havoc in. Repeat Deviant behavior criminal acts may not only be a response to limited institutionalized means of success but upon leaving prison they do not have legitimate means to prevent themselves from reoffending.
Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) After Myocardial Infarction (MI) and Predictors of PTSD Symptoms Post-MI-- A Brief Report. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 297-306. Seedat, S. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder. South African Journal of Psychiatry ,
Research shows that "jails and prisons have cultures that often lead to maladaptive behaviors in offenders with SMI that subsequently undermine treatment, both in and out of incarceration setting" (Swann & James, 2008, p. 262). Indicating from the authors, people cannot adapt successfully to such places, but a high number of individuals will have difficulties and most likely will display symptoms of maladaptation in these settings. If drug use is considered a maladaptive behavior impacting incarceration, it is entirely possible the prison environment indirectly encourages
Cooper, C., Selwood, A., & Livingston, G. (2008). The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review. Age and ageing, 37(2), 151-160. Department of Heath (2000) No Secrets: Guidance On Developing and Implementation of Multi-Agency Policies and Procedures to Protect Vulnerable Adults from Abuse. London:
In 2012, almost seven thousand inmates were serving life sentences for crimes they committed as juveniles (603). Sentencing and correctional facilities were not insusceptible to the confusion of the times, but also faced additional inconvenience. Sentencing research uncovered major discretion and something unlike anything they have ever seen before, resulting in negative punishments for minorities. The conditions in prisons led to fights and the death/injury of inmates and staff. Crime rates rising, social disobedience, and drug use increasing has alarmed many people (Mackenzie 2013 4).
Web. Mitchell, Heather, and Michael G Aamodt. “The Incidence of Child Abuse in Serial Killers.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 20.1 (2005): 40-47 Perry, Bruce D., Kevin Colwell, and Stephanie Schick. “Neglect in Childhood” Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment 1 (2002): 192-196 Morana, Hilda CP, Michael H. Stone, and Elias Abdalla-Filno. “Personality disorders, Psychopathy and Serial Killers.” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28 (2006): s74-s79 “The Link between Serial Killers and Addicts.” The Fix.