Fundamentally, stigma stems from three main elements. First and foremost, ignorance. In this case, a person may either be lacking in knowledge or is misinformed about certain facts regarding mental health issues2,4. An example of this could be an individual believing that people cannot be treated or recover from certain mental illnesses5. The second element is prejudice - which
There are studies conducted on the effects of stigma. For example, According to Scott 2000, self-stigmatization which affects individual with leprosy disease find difficult to value them and to have positive image. Therefore this study will focus more on the effects of stigmatization on both the patients and their family member, and also the interpersonal relationship they have with other community. Although the problem should be studied carefully in order to alleviate this stigma which by the way prior researches where not touched it well. 1.3REASEARCH
Social isolation, poor housing, unemployment and poverty are all linked to mental ill health. So stigma and discrimination can trap people in a cycle of illness. 5 The situation is exacerbated by the media. Media reports often link mental illness with violence, or portray people with mental health problems as dangerous, criminal, evil, or very disabled and unable to live normal, fulfilled lives. Research shows that the best way to challenge these stereotypes is through firsthand contact with people with experience of mental health problems.
The internal factors are within Veronika’s self-conflict. While external factors of Veronika’s suicide might come from the impact of the society and culture. On Veronika’s caser the problems were upon Veronika and her society. As she tend to alienate herself from the society and prefer to life alone. As Individual feeling of despairs and culture might affect the tendency of suicide.
Shyness may have some similarities with social anxiety but because there are differences they are not the same. Social anxiety affects one 's life negatively by bringing negative emotions and feelings. Anyone who has social anxiety tends not to show their full potential because they 're afraid of social situations. Also, Social anxiety is not considered a normal facet of life like shyness is. People with social anxiety may also feel shy.
Social Exclusion of HIV+ Individuals Social exclusion occurs when individuals or a group of people do not enjoy the same rights and privileges as the rest. Certain persons or groups become excluded from participating in the society either politically, socially, economically or culturally. The health status of an individual could be a major cause of social exclusion. People infected with HIV and AIDs form a part of this group. Social exclusion, in any form, leads to an individual’s inability to better their future lives.
Individuals suffering from Schizophrenic have difficulty discerning reality from unreality. Challenges for many schizophrenics include rational thoughts and inappropriate emotional responses. As the disease ultimately progresses to hallucinations, delusions, emotional numbness and severe stress in social situations. Psychologist with such clients, chalk out treatments that include medication, support groups and psychotherapy. Mood abnormalities including problems as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and irrational.
Negative self talk and self criticism often results in low self esteem and a lack of confidence. You may be very harsh on yourself, focusing in on all of your weaknesses and perceived flaws. Likewise, you may extend this habit of criticism to others in your life. This can be the cause of tremendous strain on relationships. Analyze and compare the thinking to reality.
1. INTRODUCTION Stigma and discrimination in mental illness is a long existing problem that often tormented the lives of people with mental health conditions. It a negative stereotype that, emerge as one of the greatest barriers for them to lead a satisfying life. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 2006). Mental illnesses are characterized by modifications in thinking; mood or behavior (or some combination thereof) associated with significant distress and impaired functioning over an extended period of time (World Health Organization, 2006).
According to Williams (2008) pessimists are those people who have low opinion in life. They tend to expect the worst in life and from others. Also, they have poor behavior in dealing with the people around them. When you are a pessimist you think that events that happens in your life such as failures are beyond your control when in fact you could have done something to avoid such bad event but you insisted that you cannot do anything