They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
Therefore a good and effective teacher’s evaluation process should be potent in order to promote, repeat and place students in various learning stages. In evaluating the students the teacher collects, analyze and produces judgments. Based on the results the teacher then decides on actions that must be taken into consideration, including changes in aims or goals. It is the source of data on which the teacher will base his/her judgments about improvements and “fine tuning” to be made. The habit of evaluating over time will help the teacher develop a well-founded professional expertise because of the way in which they test out and check what they did, and as a result they can be more accurately informed about what works and what does not.
I collected data that have researched on it and I looked at it from a sociological lens to understand the complexity of it. Relationship of Evidence to Standards & Competencies: One of the knowledge outcomes is Ethical standards and professional behaviour. Within this outcome are the continuum of teacher education and the life-long of the teacher. This formative assessment provides student-teacher’s feedback on their performance in classroom, which enabled improvement on teaching and learnings. It identified my strengths which were my relationship with my students, my effort put into my planning and willingness to try new approaches.
Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
To apply formative assessment effectively in the classroom, teachers have to know about formative assessment principles so that they can optimize the opportunities for gathering evidence. In so doing, it helps improve students’ learning process. Black and William (1998a) “set out four main headings for formative assessment practice: sharing learning goals, questioning, self/ peer assessment and feedback”. o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement. Hence, information about learning objectives as well as success criteria needs to be presented in clear, explicit language which students can understand.
The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated. Teachers must ensure that teaching, learning, assignments, assessment and feedback are constructively aligned, and demonstrate the evidence of student’s achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Figure 1 shows how learning outcomes, evidence of achievement, assessment criteria and feedback linked with each other. Hence, based on how well learning outcomes have been achieved by a learner, assessment along with the feedback should be given to a student. In the following paragraphs we will discuss various formats and types of assessments.
Additionally, the tasks need to be constructive and interlinked and provide a challenge to the students while also acting as a motivation factor. The adopting of effective teaching to match the personal strengths of the students ensures that a student’s learning outcome is achieved Holistic assessment should be encouraged to understand what the learner has captured on a learning
The concept of learning is changing from lecturers teaching to student learning. The assumption of this shift is based on students who are expected to improve their ability in enriching knowledge, attitudes and skills based on competencies in the curriculum. Thus, it can be said that student activeness is an indicator of meaningful learning. Meaningful learning is an approach in the management of learning systems through active learning ways toward independent learning. The ability to learn independently is the ultimate goal of meaningful learning.
Feedback is a significant element in determination of education quality as well as in effective learning where it portrays the learning outcomes for students and the successes for the tutors. There are many aspects that concern educationists with regards to feedback but the relationship between perspectives of learning as well as teaching and feedback stands as the most important among them. Feedback should be conveyed in different modes in a learning environment but whatever mode chosen creates room for dialogue between the tutor and students. Therefore, it is only through feedback that the student engagement relationship with the feedback as well as the tutors’ perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment that such successes can be established. The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted.
Thus, teachers should pay attention to the high importance of motivation along with its types. Language teachers have to be familiar with the character as well as the personality of each student they are dealing with. - Keblawi 2014, carried out a study entitled: " A review of language learning motivation theories." Keblawi traces in brief the history of language learning motivation (LLM) by reviewing the main motivation theories and models that have affected its development, as well as defining the concept of motivation and on the emergence of the interest in LLM. No doubt that motivation is crucial for students' learning.