The most important social group in the Aztec society was the calpolli. This was a collection of families connected by blood or long association. The key positions in the military, state administration, judiciary, and priesthood were dominated by the nobility. Traders could become powerful and wealthy, but their prosperity was based on their class, and most citizens stayed farmers. There were limited opportunities for an individual to better their social position.
Private property was such a large part of the upper classes life because they owned the means of production in their territory. This meant that the factories, mills, and many other industries-based businesses were owned by The Bourgeoisie, and The Proletariats then have to work as day laborers for The Bourgeoisie. In the 1859 Preface to a Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy, Marx begins with an immediate account of society's material need for all basic requirements; that could be shelter, food, etc. The general conclusion at which Marx arrives is, "In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness" (Pg.
Capitalism contributed to the possessive individualistic nature of humans. As Jean Jacques Rousseau explained, the origin of inequality was created when “The first person who, having enclosed a piece of land and said this is mine…was the true founder of civil society”. In other words, once an individual claimed something as their own, was the beginning of private profit. Smith believed that humans were economic animals who did what it took to exchange one thing for another. Personal benefits and profit was the primary motivation for merchants.
The system of feudalism during the Middle ages allowed the lords and owners of the land to tax the people of their trades. As trades increased taxes became excessive. A single person had no chance of making any objections to the amount of tax the lord demanded. The idea of merchants was created, and this was the promise that they would be the most powerful. The merchants were extremely important in maintaining the economy of the town they worked in.
Farmers worked with the animals, crops, mines, irrigation canals, and buildings. They could have payed over 60 percent of their crops for taxes. Servants served the highest classes. The slaves were captured in war. The highest class were the only ones who could own slaves.
This class included aristocrats, businessmen, and leaders of colonial territories. The equites also served an important role in resource allocation by leading and organizing the markets for food staples including grain, wine, and olive oil. The third class of citizens were the decurions, which included local administrators and members of municipal courts. The decurions maintained responsibility for environmental decisions at the local level, including disputes over property ownership or proposed infrastructure construction. The three aforementioned social groups controlled the majority of ancient Rome’s resources despite making up less than two-percent of the populous.
Looking Backward was a revolutionary novel for its time, and became Edward Bellamy’s most famous work. The entire premise of the book was to promote the benefits of socioeconomic reform in the United States. Bellamy argues that our current system of competition is wasteful of valuable resources. Instead, Bellamy suggests an economic system where the State owns and distributed all income and assets in the country. This idea of cooperation over competition is seen as superior and more efficient.
For centuries, agriculture had ruled over British economy, and families worked together on farms. The industrial revolution made people separate work and home. Men earned the money, and the women took care of the home and
Document one points this effect out by stating; “...these places can yield the tropical produce (resources) that their citizens need.” The British used India in this way, as a means to advance themselves economically, giving themselves more power. Since the British controlled all of the factors of production in its manufacturing economy, other countries were at a deficit if they wished to trade with the British. In other words, they would purchase from the British, but the British would not purchase anything from them,
In a command economy, the market can control the goals of the economy. An example is how in a command economy, all resources can be used to developing military weapons, while in a free market resources are used to make a profit and benefit both the producers and consumers. “A command economy is hence a creature of state authority, whose marks it bears and by whose hand it evolves, exists, and survives. Command economies are imposed, whether through external duress or imitation, or indigenously in order to achieve specific purposes such as: (1) maximum resource mobilization towards urgent and over-riding national objectives, e.g. rapid industrialization or the prosecution of war; (2) radical transformation of the socio-economic system in a collectivist direction based on ideological tenets and power-political imperatives; and (3) not the least, as an answer to the disorganization of a market economy through price control, possibly occasioned by inflationary pressure arising from (1) and/or (2).” (Richard E. Ericson 02) A monopoly, where there is no market competition, can concentrate on selling goods that benefits the government, while in a free market that has many competition goods and services can be produced to benefit all