An intense religious movement called, The Great Awakening, occurred in the 1730’s and 1740’s. This movement started in Colonial America, which originally came from a town named Northampton located in Massachusetts. Two preachers whose name’s are, Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield both called Northampton home. Between these two men and their belief that the only thing that could save us humans, from the eternal fires of hell, was The Lord’s mercy. This had a massive affect on the colonists of America, due to there spiritual beliefs coming to end for the past century. It not only affected the colonists but contributed greatly to the development of the separation of church and state in America.
In colonial America, written documents were one of the few primary sources of this time. All the way back to John Winthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity’’ in the 1630’s. Winthrop’s sermon shows how the only way their colony will succeed is through God. Jonathan Edwards sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” shows people how powerful God is and what he capable of doing. George Washington shows that honesty, respect, and self-discipline are all values that colonial people live off of to survive in their new environment. The tombstone of Benjamin Franklin’s parents is a good example of how a life was in Colonial America. When reading these four primary sources, the values of each time period seem to differ but have a common similarity.
The arrival of the first Europeans in the Americas is dramatically captured through the many writers who attempted to communicate what they saw, experienced and felt. What is more, the very purposes of their treacherous travel and colonization are clearly seen in their writings; whether it is poetry, history or sermons. Of the many literary pieces available today, William Bradford and John Winthrop’s writings, even though vary because the first is a historical account and the second is a sermon, stand out as presenting a clear trust in God, the rules that would govern them and the reason they have arrived in the Americas.
During the 1730s and the 1740s, a religious revival swept happened in the colonies. George Whitefield, a revivalist, toured America. During this tour, Jonathan Edwards said a sermon called, ¨Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” This lecture started a wave of religious fervor and began the Great Awakening.
In the American Revolution, there were two sides, the American Patriots who were willing to die for freedom, and the British Loyalists who were willing to die for their King. The main cause that the American Patriots wanted to separate from the British was because they were tired from the cruel and unfair ruling given by the British. They said the British were being cruel and unfair, for example, taxation without representation. Along with this reason, there are many more factors that led the American Patriots to leave Britain.
In his speech to the Virginia Congress, Patrick Henry uses rhetorical devices such as an extended metaphor and hyperbole to contribute to his purpose of coercing the other delegates to accept the upcoming conflict with Britain.
The name of the document/sermon being analyzed is “A Model of Christian Charity” by John Winthrop. It was written on board the ship Arbella on route to America/ The New World where they were to set up a colony. The colony of Massachusetts, a colony of puritans (1). An analysis of the sermon “A Model of Christian Charity” reveals to us how this piece of document was very important for creating and maintaining the Massachusetts colony and for the puritans.
Lawyer and politician, Patrick Henry in his speech, “Give me Liberty Or Give Me Death” (March 23, 1775), explains that he give this plea to urge the old dominion to form militias to defend itself against British. He supports his claim by first using a religious reference to express the themes of freedom, equality, and independence. Then uses a selection of other strategies like rhetorical question and allusion to disprove the opposing arguments and clarify the point he is making. Patrick Henry purpose is to fight back and he wants other to fight with him in order for independence. He creates a powerful and commanding tone for the second Virginia convention.
In the “Speech to the Virginia Convention” given by Patrick Henry to the President in 1775, asserts that the colonists should not be trying to negotiate with the British. His purpose was to convince the audience that they should not be trying to befriend the people of Great Britain rather that they should make Great Britain their foe. Henry uses his speech to appeal to both the President and the colonist through the use of figurative language, tone, and syntax. Patrick Henry’s use of diction, a persuasive and forceful tone, appeal to ethos and pathos, as well as various syntactical elements in his “Speech to the Virginia Convention” shows that the colonists should be fighting to break away from the British monarchy rather than negotiate terms to try and stay under their clutches.
Jonathan Edwards’s sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” and Anne Bradstreet’s “Upon the Burning of Our House” seem at first glance quite similar to one another regarding context, however, after taking a closer look, it becomes apparent that there are some substantial differences. These differences cannot be understood without the knowledge of cultural context concerning the Puritan belief system and their lifestyle.
"Fear is an instructor of great sagacity and the herald of all resolutions."- Ralph Waldo Emerson. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” was a sermon written and delivered by American reverend Jonathan Edwards in 1741, and was an outstanding example of the potentially dominant convincing powers of the use of Rhetoric. The sermon, even when read silently, is effective in projecting a specific interpretation of the wrathful nature of God and the sinful nature of man. In crafting his highly effective sermon, Edwards utilizes his authority as a man of God and as an interpreter of the scriptures, a logical and direct organization of arguments, and violent imagery to convince his audience of the vengeance of God against man.
The great awakening was a religious revival that occurred in the 1730s and 1740s. It started in England and then gradually made its way over to the American colonies. During this time, many different preachers and religious speakers went around and gave speeches to the people. Jonathan Edwards was one of Americas most important and original philosophical theologians who also went around and gave speeches about God and hell. One of his well-known sermon is “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” preached at the meeting house in the village of Enfield, Connecticut, on Sunday, July 8, 1741, at the height of the great awakening. In this sermon, Edwards focused on the consequences of leading a sinful life, the power of God and repenting of ones sins, in order to be saved from hell. The purpose behind this piece of writing was not to terrorize or dismay the hearers, but to make them repent and believe in God again. This piece was aimed at those who lacked belief in God as well as churches. In “sinners in the hands of an angry God”, Jonathan Edwards uses different types of literary techniques, such as, imagery, metaphor, similes, repetition, and rhetorical questions to emphasize his point. His point is to scare the people and make them want to repent, which is the theme of the sermon.
Jonathan edwards, is known as one of the most important religious figures of the great awakening, edwards became known for his zealous sermon “sinners at the hand of an angry god”. During his sermon he implies that if his congregation does not repent to christ they are in “danger of great wrath and infinite misery”. Throughout this sermon edwards uses literary devices such as strong diction, powerful syntax and juxtaposition to save his congregation from eternal damnation.
“I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common scenes.” (Thomas Paine, Common sense) This is the beginning sentence of “Common scene” written by Thomas Paine. Common sense s is a pamphlet written during a time of struggle between the British Monarchy and the American colonies. It was written to convince the colonist that their government had did them wrong and that they should gain their independence from Britain, by using different type rhetorical devices such as ethos, pathos, and others.
In “Then I Must Worship the Spirit in My Own Way”, preached by Red Jacket, and a “Lecture Delivered at Franklin Hall” by Maria Stewart are speeches that persuades the audience through rhetorical questions and connects with the audience in order to establish the speaker’s authority.