Both of these tests are performed during the second trimester of a pregnancy, which begins at thirteen weeks, and the results of the tests return back information rather quickly at a time of one to two weeks. These tests are uncomfortable, quite costly, and ¨carry a one percent risk of miscarriage each¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989). While the risk is small, the percentage of parents that chose to terminate the pregnancy after these invasive tests are much greater. Between the percentage of those who choose to terminate a pregnancy when the receive the news that their child has Down Syndrome and the risk of a miscarriage, there is an eighty-six percent chance that the baby will pass away (Press
And finally 3. It is an expensive process because of the how selective it is, therefore would not be economically reasonable. Prenatal screening is recommended to women who have a family history of Rett’s Syndrome, but it is rare for the disorder to occur more than once in a
This can be used for legal purposes. This type of testing can be used to identify catastrophe victim (these are people who die in accidents or disasters that can not physically be identified), identify crime victims, rule out (find innocent) or implicate (find guilty) crime
Some of the tests for diagnosis during pregnancy include ultrasound, amniocentesis, and an AFP (alfa-fetaprotein) test. An ultrasound is a non-invasive test if done abdominally, and oftentimes spina bifida can be seen as a result of the ultrasound. Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into the amniotic sac and a sample of amniotic fluid is obtained and tested. If the level of AFP is found to be higher than average, this could be an indication of spina bifida.
The radio producers in my eyes, engaged in a case study design. A case study is, something of interest in its own right, and the researcher(s) goal is to provide a detailed clarification of it (Bell 42-43). Harper High School, is on its own very interesting, it is a, if not the most gun violence infested school in Chicago. Chicago, at the time was the only major metropolitan with rising murder rates, and Englewood (location of the school) has one of the highest neighbourhood murder rates. Harper High, embodied all the problems faced by the neighbourhood, and city, because it witnessed the issue of violence, like nothing else. Thus, when they sent in three reporters, they wanted to collect, detailed qualitative data, which would hopefully, illustrate
During this process, the blood is tested for higher levels of immunoreactive trypsinogen or IRT. The sweat test is another test used to test the amount of salt in the sweat and see if it is higher than normal. A blood test can also check the DNA to see if the gene that can cause Cystic Fibrosis is defected. These tests are usually done on infants and they must be tested at Cystic Fibrosis specialized clinic. (Mayo Clinic Staff)
The results of the studies suggested that high-grade dysplasia (an abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ) was detected earlier when HPV tests were used rather than Pap tests alone. Pap tests (also called smear tests) have been used in Germany since the 1970s to screen for cervical cancer. This test involves examining cervical cells (doing a cytological
It 's like putting together puzzle pieces with each part required to show the final picture. Because the tissues in the brain and spine are bathed in special fluid,a lumbar puncture procedure is used to extract fluid from the spinal area. This test looks for higher amounts of the presence of certain proteins that allow the immune system to stage attacks on itself. This may be a vital test.
Per Reporter: Christine and the baby tested positive for benzodiazepines and marijuana. The meconium test is pending. There were no birth defects; however, the nurse (unknown) mentioned that the baby is experiencing withdrawals (trimmers). Christine takes Subutex (methadone), which are prescribed.
The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process.