Mesa Verde is most well known for its cliff dwellings found in the sandstone of its dynamic landscape. The Mesa Verde National park was originally established for the main purpose of preserving these very same archaeological sites. Without the geology of the area these dwellings might never have come to be, or preserved so splendidly. While it has many different geological formations on the property John Carrara states that “The Mesa Verde is essentially a broad, flat, upland surface sloping gently to the south and dissected by deep canyons containing ephemeral streams.” (Carrara 2014) The majority of the rock formation found in the park were formed from sediments from the crustaceous age (Carrara 2014) . The four most prevalent forms are …show more content…
One of the more notable of these being the desert varnish. Desert varnish is a rust colored streaking found on rocks and cliffs around the cliff houses. This is caused by bacteria grabbing onto minerals and particles that are existing in the rock or blown around by the wind. Another fascinating geological feature found at Mesa Verde is turtle back weathering (NPS 2005). The formation is found in the Cliff House Sandstone group in areas that are not covered or protected. Similar to the formation of the alcoves water seeping into cracks and freezing plays an integral part in the forming of this feature. The water in the cracks also serves the additional purpose of dissolving the calcium within the rocks which weakens them, and leaves behind the signature turtle shell quality. Ripple Marks, while by no means exclusive to the Mesa Verde, are very beautiful land formations that provide a clear indication as to how they were made (NPS 2005). The formations look just like ripples in water and it is indeed water ripples that help form them. The water leaves behind sediments with each ripple which slowly compacts into sedimentary rock that closely resemble its forming …show more content…
With the wet periods in this climate that are quickly followed by dry periods, it causes the soils to swell and contract over and over. In most soils you will simply get cracked clay with this process, but with clay from volcanic ash it forms this popcorn texture instead. Another important characteristic that possibly effected the location of the cliff houses is the Loess (NPS 2005). This is basically just wind blown salt that has slowly gathered over the years, but it served a very important purpose for the inhabitants of the cliff dwellings. In the arid environment this Loess would hold the moisture and nutrients so the inhabitants could farm to grow food. Without this the natives would have been forced to live in a more congenial environment. Mesa Verde may seem very similar to the parks surrounding it, but it is unique and amazing in its own right. It is hard to imagine that something like a tiny change in incline, precipitation, or temperature fluctuation might make a landscape look completely different. In this case an entire civilizations home and way of life would be drastically changed. Understanding the internal workings and cycles of the world around you can make or break and entire
The poorly sorted nature of the conglomerates, considered with the inclusion of wood fragments in the older conglomerate members and the graded sandstones and mudstones throughout the formation suggest deposition occurred through successions of debris flows. Presence of volcanics in the lithic fragments further indicate volcanic activity in the process of sedimentation as well—as debris flows associated with lahars are the likely source of the slope failures. Deposition environment was moderate to deep marine, as mudstone deposits require low energy depositional environment, but the style of sedimentation indicate deposition was not on a continental shelf. This is further supported by inclusion of the large overturned clast from an older member within the formation. Cross-bedding, graded bedding, and scouring surfaces provide 3 lines of evidence establishing the northern contact of the formation as the original upward oriented surface.
Mount William Greenstone Axe Quarry located in suburb of Goldie, near the town of Lancefield in Central Victoria. It is approximately 60km north of Melbourne. The area of the quarry site is on a ridgeline located on the northern end of the Mount William Range. The site of the Mt William stone Hatcher quarry in size of around 18 hectares and is subdivided into two group, on the southern side have a size of 10ha portion into three lot with 8ha have 2.4m high fence and is owned by the Indigenous Land Cooperation and two private properties has one hectares each. On the northern side estimated 7 hectares of private land and is unfenced.
Since the location was near to the Maribyrnong River, the procedure must be further stimulated by the existence of the river in the ecosystem, and this is happening from the further upstream. As for the downstream, it carried by the sediment that deposited at the riverbanks of the Maribyrnong River. Weathering and erosion of the primary rock in the early stage were leading to the deposition of sediment, and the younger sediment progressively replaced the older sediment which along the riverbank (Figure 2.3). Further away from the Maribyrnong river a little bit where the river flow was gradually rapid, some Marine deposits from the Ordovician Period was found such as mudstone, interbedded shale and greywacke, which may
The Cordell formation is the uppermost member of the Manistique group. The Cordell member is a Silurian aged dolomite deposited within the The Manistique The Manistique group is approximately 60 meters of varying dolostones. The lower group, the Schoolcraft member, can be distinguished from the Cordell by its massive and crystalline texture.
The picture that depicts homes in the cliffs were built by the Anasazi who lived in the Southwest (Four Corners) culture region and the long houses were built by the Iroquois who lived in the Great Lakes (New York) culture region. The Anasazi modified their environment by irrigating the desert, building roads, and by building homes into the cliff because they needed to be able to farm in the dry desert, travel and trade, and also be able to defend themselves from their warlike neighbors. The Iroquois, however, modified their environment by clearing land to farm and building the long houses as they did not have to defend against as many attacks. These two different people chose to modify their environments differently because not only were
(Harris, 2004) The downfaulting of Death Valley is correlated with the extension of the lithosphere in the Death Valley region, which plays a part to the uplifting associated with Sequoia – Kings Canyon National Park. The Batholiths of the Sierra Nevada mountain ranges are prominent in both parks, exposing “plumbing systems” in magma chambers that fed the volcanoes. “Magmatic differentiation” involves the crystallization of a magma with magma of a different chemical composition, creating more than one type of igneous rock, which can be seen in both Yosemite and Sequoia – Kings National Parks. (Harris, 2004, 748)
It was conducted in order learn how to better manage the barriers in response to growing development in coastal areas. In response to previous research, it was hypothesized that some barrier islands originally formed offshore and were relocated to their present locations through wash over. The study was conducted by examining stratigraphic sections for nine barrier island transects as well as stratigraphic data from previous studies. Over 200 vibracores were examined for the study total.
Then about 25 million years ago lots of dome-like plugs of magma were forced through the surrounding older rocks, filling volcanic vents or subsurface bulges. They are now exposed from the ground and are called the Glass House Mountains. The Bible theory believes that the sandstone was placed as the floodwaters from the story of Noah were rising in the earth, and placing extensive sedimentary sheets across thousands of kilometres of the landscape. The aboriginal legend seems to mention the flood of Noah as it says "One day when Tibrogargan was gazing out to sea, he perceived a great rising of the waters. He knew then that
The history, great rocks, flora and fauna, and awesome activities are what make Yosemite National Park such an amazing place. The unique geology of Yosemite was set in its place more than a five hundred million years ago. Its spectacular mountains, El Capitán and Half Dome, are two of the world 's most famous rock climbing spots. The plants and animals that dwell in the beautiful forest are each unique in different ways. There are many activities that are offered to visitors of Yosemite, providing all of them with a memorable experience.
If an effort to learn from their surroundings rather than just exist in them is made, this person could learn an exponential amount just from their own backyard. However this can only be achieved if there is a noticeable attempt to explore the areas in which they live. (Page 52) “The secrets of this earth are not for all men to see, but only for those who will seek them.” There are hidden meanings and discoveries that can be made if the effort to find them is made.
If Cather did not include the Mesa people in the story the importance of the mesa would not have been less; however, they serve as a model of people completely consumed and molded by nature and the American terrain itself. Their way of life was pure and uncorrupted by1920s American consumerism. The mesa people “lived for something more than food and shelter” and were not people who were simple minded and just did not have the intelligence to live as most 1920s Americans did (Cather). The “something more” is what Cather is saying can be found or achieved by turning to nature. The mesa people had a deep understanding of humans, nature and even "the human consciousness, as we know it today, dwelt there" (Mesa Cather).
It showed how different the Europeans where from the Natives and how they they all had different opinions on the Natives. Columbus thought the Indians were gullible and lost people who could be persuaded into doing anything, like changing to Christianity. Sepúlveda thought the Indians were down right Barbarians who enjoyed ripping out human hearts and sacrificing them to God. On the other hand, Las Casas saw talent in the Native Americans and saw they weren't a stupid as they seemed. We wouldn't have this information if explorers like Columbus didn't write journey and books of their experience.
Mankind does not come to the world with everything made sense already, we give ‘sense’ and meanings to those things. It is a dialectic process that requires three steps: 1) Externalizations; 2) Objectivation; and 3) Internalization. Collectively we made a world for ourselves, we learn how to relate to and shape the
The search for knowledge is arduous, to utilize knowledge wisely can be blessings, but
Although it is important to learn new things, the new material learned is not as important as the process of learning itself. In the process of learning, one’s mind is transformed and engaged. They will be introduced to new things and their ideas and thinking will be changed forever. When learning new things, seeing the value of things become