Messick And Positive Washback

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Based on Messick (1996), validity is defined as "an overall evaluative judgment of the degree to which empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy and appropriateness of interpretations and actions based on the test scores or other methods of measurement" (p. 221). Therefore, validity is the interpretations of test scores. In fact, validation is not directly related to test, however it's related to the inferences and interpretations regarding the test scores. It is said that washback is inextricably bound up with test scores' interpretations and inferences. According to Messick (1996) and Hamp-Lyons (1998) washback is considered as subcategory of construct or consequential validity. The use of test results, the impact…show more content…
So, it is recommended to use direct and authentic samples of language in tests. Alderson and Wall (1993) claim that washback is a complex phenomenon and it has no direct relation to test validity. They state other forces within society and education might prevent washback from appearing or alter the nature of washback. However, Fredricksen and Collins (1989) believe in Alderson and Wall (1993) on that washback is inferred through attitudinal and behavioral changes in teachers and learners, they expanded it to learners' outcomes and argue there's a relationship between washback and systemic validity, evidence of systemic validity would be an improvement in (tested) skills after the test has been in place within the educational system for a period of…show more content…
Content: refers to the knowledge, skills, and other attributes to be presented by the assessment tasks. As Messick (1996) states, content standards need to be relevant and representative of the construct domain. Tests which represent a weak relationship between the content being tested and the test construct, undoubtedly show low validity because the test takers won't have opportunity to demonstrate their ability. As stated by Fulcher in an example (2003), if a speaking test is designed to measure achievement on a particular program of study, we must ask to what extent the test content provides the opportunity for the test-takers to demonstrate that their ability on the constructs of interest have

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