133).Metadiscourse markers are one of the rhetorical tools that make a text reader-friendly and as such enable the writer to reach the audience.Vande Koppel (1985) suggests that metadiscourse conveys textual and interpersonal meanings. Interpersonal metadiscourse "helps writers express their personalities, their evaluations of and attitudes towards ideational material, show what role in the communication situation they are choosing, and indicate how they hope readers will respond to the ideational material" (VandeKoplle, 1985, p. 2-3). Textual metadiscourse helps writers
(Halliday and Hasan, 1976 ,13). Cohesion : Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of coherence. “Cohesion occurs when the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976, 4) . The concept of cohesion, according to Halliday and Hasan (1976), is a semantic one.
The descriptive essay has a familiar structure: introduction, main body, and conclusion. The introduction sets the tone of the work; it typically should grab the readers’ attention and put forward the essay thesis, that is, to justify the necessity of describing its object. The main body depicts the object of the essay while the conclusion recaps its significance.
Style is an author’s unique use of diction, structure and vocabulary in order to elicit a particular response from the reader. Each writer has a different style, and this style often reflects the values of that particular author, for example, should an author experience the world by heavily relying on their emotions, the author’s style is likely to reflect this and may emphasise the feelings of the characters in the novel. The emphasis of the characters’ emotions may be the result of overly descriptive passages related to the characters’ emotions and metaphors to further clarify the emotions of the characters in that moment. Author’s utilise style in this way in order to better communicate their ideas with the reader. This is essential with literary texts, so as not to confuse the reader, and make them ponder the topics the author intended.
The importance of background knowledge and cultural familiarity in the reading process has been discussed within schema theory (Bartlett, 1932; Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983). Schema defined as the background knowledge that enables the reader to make predictions about the text plays a vital role in text interpretation. Therefore a successful comprehension depends on shared schemata and Schema theory is defined as the reader’s ability to use previous knowledge to learn from text and comprehend it (Rumelhart, 1980). It was indicated that Schema theory deals with preexisting knowledge structures or predispose individuals to think and search in their mind and the reader’s ability to make connections between their prior knowledge and the text (Ajideh, 2003; Alderson, 2000; Alptekin, 2006; Anderson, 1999; Carrell, 1983; Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983; Grabe & Stoller, 2002; Johnson, 1981, 1982; Ketchum, 2006; Erten, & Razi, 2009; Murtagh, 1989). The fundamental basic of this theory conveys that written texts do not carry meaning by themselves and it is the reader who gives meaning to texts with the prior
Moreover, the most basic perspective that must be considered by the investigator is the matter related to plagiarism for the reason that it influences the credibility of the research in a pessimistic manner. It is noticed that in this kind of wide research it focus on the issue of plagiarism that can develop and referred as illegal. In addition, it is crucial for the specialist to ensure that no hints of this activity are accessible in the paper and it is formed by his own thoughts and considering the perspective of various researchers and experts (Kumar & Phrommathed,
In fact, it is a highly sophisticated mental process. Therefore, writing is process in the field of language learning and teaching. It requires a great mastery of grammar and lexis, then the ability to generate and organize ideas in a readable text. Components of The Writing Skill No doubt that writing is not easy task, because of the effort that the learners have to do to produce an effective piece of writing. They should follow certain criteria to achieve that.
Methodology is the link between philosophy, data, and theory informing the research, as well as the practice of conducting that research. Any discussion of a complexity-informed methodology should establish a clear link between the epistemological positioning of complexity frame, complexity theoretical perspective and data informing the work. The aim of this paper is to show how complexity perspective enables the researcher to interact with some methodological challenges in translation research in relation to case study approach, and thus provide practical research orientation to others who dare step on the path of complexity thinking. When there are examples, they do not come from empirical research and are usually only illustrative, to indicate how I interpret a concept, to show that something is at least possible, or to make a point. We have chosen to focus on the case study method because of its popularity among the disciplines that traditionally informed context-oriented research in translation studies (cultural studies, sociology, political science, anthropology, psychology), as well as because of its flexibility in terms of drawing on a wide range of sources of data.
It is considered as an inductive approach in which interviews and case study methods are used to collect and analyze data. As Garson ( 2002) said, ?qualitative research design strive for in-depth understanding of subjects, through such techniques participant observation or narrative analysis, or they may strive for in-depth understanding of texts through such methods as exegesis or deconstruction?. The qualitative research approach is non statistical and it is used to understand the motivations and reasons in a qualitative way (Creswell,
To make sense of the new information, the reader must integrate the material into their schema of connected information. The importance of comprehension goes further than just “understanding” the material at hand. In order to comprehend a text, the reader must be engaged, using context clues, problem solving, using the three cueing systems, decoding, and actively monitoring the text. If the reader is not truly comprehending the text, they are just merely following words along on a page. Furthermore, the strategies that are being used in order to comprehend a text translate over to real-life situations.