In any machining process there is a continuous plastic deformation of the layer being cut. In addition to this there is friction between the tool-chip and tool-work interfaces. This results in high amount of heat generation in machining. Yildiz Y. et al. 2008  The heat generation has a considerable effect on the quality of part produced as an output of machining.
The spindle speed is chosen on the basis of the material is being cut. More increment in the spindle speed will result in wearing of tool, breakages and various defects such as chattering of the tool which results in dangerous condition. It means that tool life is increased with the help of correct selection of spindle speed for the particular material. As spindle speed increases so the temperature of the heat affected zone is also increased. That means there is a basic need to identify the optimal range of spindle speed.
It also cools the two electrodes, and flushes away the products of machining from the gap. The electrical resistance of the dielectric influences the discharge energy and the time of spark initiation (Kuneida et al., 2005). If the resistance is low, an early discharge will occur and if it is large, the capacitor will attain a higher value of charge before the discharge spark occurs. The tool has to be advanced through the dielectric towards workpiece as it is spark-eroded. A servo system is used to compare the gap voltage with a reference value, and ensure that the electrode moves at a proper rate to maintain constant spark gap and if necessary to retract the electrode if short circuiting occurs.
Although electrical conductivity is an important factor in this type of machining, some techniques can be used to increase the efficiency in machining of low electrical conductive materials. The Spark Theory on a wire EDM is basically the same as that of the vertical EDM process. Many sparks can be observed at one time. This is because actual discharges can occur more than one hundred thousand times per second. The heat of each electrical spark, estimated at around 15,000° to 21,000° Fahrenheit.
Surface finish is one of the prime requirements of customers for machined parts. In most of machining operations the main objective is optimization of surface roughness. The higher value of surface roughness generates on the machining parts and due to rework or scrap results into increase in cost and loss productivity. Surface roughness is major factor in modern CNC milling industry. The purpose of this work is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in milling by regression analysis.
Introduction of AFM Precision and Ultra finishing process represents a critical and expensive phase of the overall production process. Manufacturing of precision parts consists a stage of final finishing operation. It is mostly uncontrollable, labour intensive and frequently involves a reasonable part of the total manufacturing cost. The functional properties such as wear resistance and power loss due to friction are influenced by surface roughness of the matching parts [1, 3]. To counter the problems such as high direct labour cost and to produce finished precision parts with specific features for finishing inaccessible areas, abrasive finishing techniques are developed.
A-TIG welding was increased penetration joint and decreased angular distortion. It was characteristic of high degree of energy concentration during welding and reduced the quality of supplied heat. It was prevented to overheat of the base metal and reduced the incidence of thermal strains and incompatible strain was caused by shrinkage in thickness. VI. CONCLUSION TIG welding with mixture of SiO2 and TiO2 fluxes achieves increase in weld depth and decreasein weld width as well as angular distortion.
Abstract Hot forging is one of the complete ranges of manufacturing that allows tool making of highest specifications. It also allows tools to be molded to complex shapes while retaining high strength, reliability, efficiency and precision. However, tool cost is a very significant aspect in hot forging because it covers up to 15% of such costs. Over in hot forging, high speed machining is able to machine very hard material. On the other hand, there is a problem that arises in hot forging, weakness of too steel at 700 degrees Celsius.
At first, sheet metal was cut into the required shape and placed on the die. Punch is fixed on the top of machine which give compressive force on the sheet metal. Due to high compressive force, the sheet metal was deformed into the shape of die [1,2,3]. During deep drawing process, if the force acting on the sheet metal is more, the wrinkling defect will occur in the finished component. It is found that wrinkling occur due to improper punching speed also.
A.1.1 Machining Operations Machining involves various processes that are used in workshops to modify the given material into the desired shape or size. It is the removal of excessive material to obtain the required dimensions. Machining processes are classified in to 3 main categories, they are, drilling, milling and turning. The other miscellaneous processes are boring, sawing, shaping, and broaching. • Drilling – it is the process used to create right circular cylinder by using a twist drill.