Considered as a part of the broader topic called metacognition (monitoring one’s own cognitive processes), it differs from it in that it involves the knowledge of, monitoring of, and control of one’s own learning and memory processes, whereas, metacognition is an umbrella term that entails the self-knowledge about all cognitive processes such as memory, attention, reasoning, decision making, etc. Thus, it follows that all metamemory judgements are essentially metacognitive, but all metacognitive judgements are not metamemory judgements. For example, making judgements about the time to be allotted or required to learn something, the level of confidence about retrieving information from memory, or about the ease with which information can be encoded, general beliefs about one’s own memory functions and capacities all come in the purview of metamemory. Although it is considered to be dependent critically on memory, it is not memory itself. Rather it is the assessments or commentaries that are made about learning and memory.
5.1 Introduction In the brain, the hippocampus is involved in directing the process of creating, systematising and retaining memories. The hippocampus is widely connected to the dorso medial nuclei of the thalamus, mammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus, limbic system network for learning and continuous action for long-term storage. The hippocampus brings about the representation of spatial and temporal memories (Eichenbaum et al, 1992). The research about cognitive function of the hippocampus suggests that selective lesions of the hippocampus will produce a deficit in learning or exploration of a new environment. In the hippocampus memory, related information passes through various regions like cornu ammonis (CA) and dentate gyrus (DG).
The definition of cognitivism is the belief that much of human behavior can be understood in terms of how people think (Sternberg, 2012) .Cognitivism is the study in psychology that focuses on mental processes, including how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems, and direct their attention to one stimulus rather than another. Psychologists working from a cognitivist perspective, then, seek to understand cognition. Rooted in Gestalt psychology and the work of Jean Piaget, cognitivism has been prominent in psychology since the 1960s ,(http://www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/cognitivism-13, 2003). Jean Piaget theorized that there are four stages of Cognitive Development. The first stage is a sensorimotor stage.
According to my research, I found that it is said that cognitive theory defines learning as a semi-permanent change in mental processes or associations. Well, it is the cognitive notion of learning. Many of the information processing models of teaching and learning are based on the cognitive view of learning. "Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities-opening the "black box" of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn." One of the assumption made by the cognitive psychology was that there are cognitive processes that take place and influence the way things are
Smith and Kosslyn (2007) define memory as a set of representations and processes by which information is encoded, consolidated, and retrieved. (p. 538). Models have been developed to show processes such as short-term storage that allows for problem solving and for how memory is processed from sensory input to long-term storage. Although, there are many representations of these types of processes, only a few will be discussed in this paper. As credit is due to all the theories and tasks that have been completed to give evidence that these processes do exist; at the present day moment experts still are not sure exactly how our brain works.
"Memory is a special faculty of the mind to conserve or retain what has been previously experienced or acquired through learning and, then, at some later stage, to revive or reproduce it in the form of recall or recognition to enable us to utilize such learning in different situations of daily life. How we remember can be explained through the models of memory. The levels of processing model suggested by Craik and Lokhart emphasizes that the ability to remember depends on the levels at which we process the information. The deeper the processing of the information, the longer it can be remembered. The other model, Atkinson and Shiffrins’s storage and transfer model, put forward the concept of three separate kinds of storage for the three types
After reading an article by Endel Tulving, he talks about memory retrieval with regards to the human brain. He states in his thesis "The purpose of the present article is to question the traditional view that remembering the past and knowing things learned in the past represent similar cognitive processes" (Tulving, 1989). He continues by saying "I would suggest that remembering and knowing, as these terms are used here, are more appropriately conceptualized as operations of two hypothetical memory systems, episodic and semantic memory, and that in that sense they are not only similar, as all memory systems must be, but also basically different" (Tulving, 1989). In Tulving's first piece of evidence to support the above thesis he uses an example of a case study. He talks about "a 30-year-old man, whom we shall call K.C., had an accident that changed his life" (Tulving, 1989).
If we as helpers believe that a clients is acting on their present every day life situatuon due to what has happened in their past, we as helpers will be more interested in practing a theory that empasises in helping that client with their past experiences. The main point of Freuds Theory “Phenomenolgical Theory” is to deal with the structure of the clients personality. According to Freud, a human beings personality is made up of three distrinct structure, id, ego and superego found on page (120) of the “Okun/Kantrowitz” text in the book “Hums 250 Working with individuals Columbia College Edition.” The id is though as the clietns “primal urges' things like fufilling the need to eat, sleep and gass on genes to future generations. The main concern of the id for the client to to get immediate gratificate, the id is also located in the unconscious part of the clients mind set. At the infant stace is when the id-driven mindset begins.
With saying this, there are also many things that contemplate whether their information is as precise as they say. There are an abundance of factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. “Psychologists usually separate the process of remembering into three stages: Encoding, storage and misinformation effect”(Science) First off, how does the brain store our information? Storage is the more or less passive process of remembering
Bartlett, 1932; Head, 1920; Piaget, 1926) which was inspired mainly by cognitive psychology (e.g., Rumelhart, 1975) and the early Gestalt psychology of the 1920s. It was also a great help to the studies done in the realm of artificial intelligence. Barlett (1932) considered schema as “memory structures abstracted from idiosyncratic experiences” which play a significant role in the processes of narrative comprehension and recall (Hakemulder, 2006). Schema theory thus shed light on the way of people goes through their everyday experiences by providing “explanation for facts from human cognitive adaptability to the use of definite reference in specific circumstances” (Stockwell, 2006, p.
The cognitive theory focuses on how people learn from the processing of information. It discusses the concept such as memory, problem-solving as well as decision-making. Like behaviourists, they observed actions empirically to make interpretations about the internal mental progression (Yilmaz, 2011). According to Kuljis & Lui (2005) and Taylor et al. (2000), focus on arguments on how student learn large volumes of meaningful information by exposing them to a verbal teaching method.