The pyruvate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to produce C02 and H+ which is used to reduce NAD. This forms acetate which taken by coenzyme A (coA) recycled from Kreb’s cycle to form acetyl coA. No ATP is produced or used in this stage so the net total of ATP is still 2. There is now 4 carbon. The third stage is the Kreb’s cycle, acetyl coA enters the Kreb’s cycle by combining with a 4C acid to form a 6C compound (citrate).
The Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration process that uses a transport chain called physolmere, which is where the cellular respiration processes without oxygen, whereas aerobic respiration is a type of respiration where oxygen IS used. Anaerobic respiration mostly occurs in prokaryotes cells and mostly to plants and to organisms in “presence of very little or no oxygen” (BBC). Plant cells and microorganisms (e.g. yeast) produces carbon dioxide and ethanol (lactic acid) through anaerobic respiration. For example, in yeast the anaerobic reactions make alcohol; however, in your muscles, they make lactic acid.
Instead of producing high amounts of ATP, eight electrons were removed from the acetyl group and transferred to the co-enzymes NAD+ and FAD, which are reduced to NADH and FADH2. They are therefore called electron carrier co-enzymes and are used to transport electrons from the Krebs cycle to the respiratory chain. Through a series of molecules, the reduced coenzyme NADH and FADH2 are oxidized and the released electrons were used to reduce O2. Finally, the electrons that are released
Once the citric acid is created a molecule of water is then removed but also added back, causing the conversion citrus to isocitrate. After this the substance then loses a molecule of CO2 and the five carbon molecule that remains is then oxidized, causing NAD+ to reduce to NADH. The next step is then catalysed by a multienzyme complex that causes another molecule of carbon to be lost as CO2. Leaving a 4 carbon compound that is oxidised by the transfer of electrons to NAD+ forming NADH, this is then attached to coA by an unstable
Another method is chemical sorption of CO2power plants. Plants can naturally capture the carbon dioxide and use it for photosynthesis by biological fixation. Terrestrial plants capture more amount of carbon dioxide but the actual atmospheric carbon dioxide is just 0.036%, so it is not economical valuable method. Another alternative Biological method is CO2 sequestration by using algae. It has some advantages over physical methods of sequestration.
As discuss above, pyruvate can be directly converted into oxaloacetate or it can convert in malate first by giving up carbon dioxide. Then, malate can convert into oxaloacetate by reduces NAD+ into NADH and H+. In the pyruvate pathway, oxaloacetate cannot be converted into phosphoenolpyruvate in the mitochondria because there is no NADH reducing equivalents which is NAD+ .That is why there is an extra step that should be taken where the production of NADH reducing equivalents occur. Therefore, in mitochondria, oxaloacetate will be converted into malate by malate dehydrogenase which oxidizes NADH and H+ into NAD+ . With the presence of NAD+, malate will then be transported into cytosol and will be converted back into oxaloacetate.
The heat of combustion for paraffin is actually -44.29 kj/g, in regards to the official class equations. The difference between the values is about 16.5 kj.g. The two values are substantially different because of several factors involved in the lab. The loss of heat into the external environment outside the can and the lab area. We tried to minimize the effect of the heat loss by using chilled water instead of room temperature, although not much correction was done.
Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical. This can be accomplished by the use of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) as Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS) is not possible because of the electron-rich benzene ring, which does not have substituents that withdraw electrons. Since the density in the
Properties of Grignard reagents : 2- Grignard reagents dissolve rabidly in two types of ethers, alicyclic ether and aliphatic ether and they also dissolve in other solvents. 3- Grignard reagents are colorless solids. 4- They highly reactive with amines, alcohols, acetylene and water. 5- They may react with the compounds which contain hydrogen that should be active as well as, halogen and carbonyl compounds. Reactions of Grignard
In eukaryotes it occurs in the chloroplast stroma, whereas in prokaryotes it occurs in the carboxysomes which contain enzymes essential for Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle consists of three stages which are the carboxylation, reduction and the regeneration stage. In the course of carboxylation phase, an enzyme called ribose biphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO) speeds up the addition of carbon dioxide to 5-carbon molecule ribulose-1.5-biphosphate (RuBP) generating a six carbon transition molecule that concurrently splits two molecules of 3-phoglycerate (PGA). During the reduction phase, PGA is gradually reduced and forms glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. In the final phase which is the regeneration phase, RuBP is regenerated and the cycle starts all over again.
Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.” While CO2 is produced, the amount of CO2 produced is different depending on the organisms, in this case crayfish.