An important function of the dendrite is the integration of various input signals. Synapses are the gaps between the axons of transmitting neurons and the dendrites of receptor neurons. Electrochemical signals are carried across the gap by neurotransmitter molecules. These end up at the receptor proteins located in the ends of dendrites. There are various neurotransmitter chemicals.
Question 1 a. In detail, elucidate how your device is representative of/different from the physiological environment. Indicate how these variables may affect neural functionality. In order to record neuronal signals, my device, specifically the electrode, will be inserted into the rat sciatic nerve to record extracellularly the action potential generated by the neurons. There are several differences between the electrodes and the medium into which they will be inserted.
It is like a transmitter in the brain and is important for the signals that it sends to the central nervous system and according to the article I found on Functions of Dopamine, “it is what allows information to be passed from one neuron to another”. (Functions of Dopamine, 2018) Some of the functions of dopamine are; motor activity, cognition, emotion, and reward. There are also disorders that are associated with having a low amount of dopamine such as depression and movement disorders. Some of the more serious disorders are schizophreniz, ADHD, OCD, Tourette’s syndrome, and drug abuse. Then if there is a death of dopamine neurons it causes Parkinson’s disease, where a person is robbed of the ability to have smooth and controlled movements.
Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often effectively reduce people 's subjective experience of intense anger or anxiety. Use one of the major theories of emotion to account for the emotion-reducing effects of such tranquilizers. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining these effects? Why? The two factor theory could describe this because it would explain that you need physical arousal and can be to a cognitively label it.
Due to the presence of the mirror the individual visually perceives that both hands are there and functioning. To release the clenching pain the person clenches both “hands” and releases. Upon the release of the hands the individual feels the clenching pain begin to subside in their phantom limb; therefore, the individual continues to clench and release whenever the pain becomes unbearable again. The second case presented to Ramachandran does not fit with the theory provided. The second case is showing that the brain needs to experience a type of placebo effect with visual stimuli to ease the clenching phantom limb pain.
Environmental factors tend to modify the inputs received by the sensory pathway. The developing brain is most vulnerable to these alterations and interacts with the environment to modify its neural circuitry. In addition to other sensory stimuli, auditory stimulation can also act as external stimuli to provide enrichment during the perinatal period. There is evidence that suggests that enriched environment in the form of auditory stimulation can play a substantial role in modulating plasticity during the prenatal period. The molecular mechanisms of various changes in the hippocampus following sound stimulation to effect neurogenesis, learning and memory are described.
The cortex which is a thin wrinkly layer squished inside the human skull is known for problem solving. How the cerebellum controls movement in an individual by telling the muscles what to do at every step. We also see how how the brain communicates by sending electric signals all around the body. Various diseases caused by brain damage is also covered and how this affects our memories; long term and short
Each of these lobes has different functions from each other. On the other hand, the neurotransmitters are the information carriers, they carry electrochemical signals to and from the brain throughout the entire body in human beings. Then, we have the nervous system which can actually be divided into two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) where the brain and spinal cord are parts of the CNS. The PNS can still be divided into two specific parts, the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
MELATONIN, IMMUNITY AND STEROIDS ABSTRACT Melatonin is the secretion of pineal gland and a broad range of physiological functions are modulated by this hormone. Available finding of research shows that it is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory hormone. In this review, melatonin and its interactions with immune system as well as steroids have been discussed. The immune system protects the body from microorganisms present all around the environment. The anti-inflammatory nature of melatonin connects it with the immune system.
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)