Methods Of Management: Major Approaches To Management

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Introduction: Managers are the people who get things done by the others. While the art to get things done by others, in order to achieve goals/aims is management. Management is an amalgamation of the following functions:  Planning: Plan out all the things, detailed outline to achieve a specific goal.  Organizing: Assigning jobs to the individual employees & allocation of resources.  Leading: Motivation & encouragement of employees, communication with them.  Controlling: Control things & see whether the results are according to plan & can take correct action if required. Management has been practiced a long time. Even in ancient times, people knowingly or unintentionally follow the functions of management in their projects to achieve goals.…show more content…
Classical Approach 2. Quantitative Approach 3. Behavioral Approach 4. Contemporary Approach Classical Approach: Scientific management and General Administrative theory are included in this approach. 1. Scientific management: Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911) published a book named “Principles of scientific management” in which he describes the scientific ways to increase the production efficiency. He used different scientific methods to find the ‘One best way to do the job’. That is; the person must fits the job, a standardized method of work must be followed, training and teaching of the workers, division of work among the workers, motivation & collaboration with the workers. Later on his followers; Frank and Lillian Gilbreth worked on time & motion studies in order to increase the productivity by reducing body motions. In order to calculate the body motions & time taken for each motion they developed a device named as microchronometer. 2. General Administrative Theory: It focused on managers’ work and what constitutes good management practice. Unlike Taylor, Henry Fayol’s concern was with the all manager’s activities instead of first line managers. He developed 14 principles of management that are as…show more content…
Since managers in any organization get things done by the others, so the peoples & their behaviors are of great importance in any organization. Regarding behavioral approach in late 1700s & early 1900s, contributions were made by Hugo Munsterberg, Robert Owen, Mary Parker Follett by explaining the employee selection & training procedures, motivation programs, and team work. Furthermore Hawthrone studies followed by Harvard professor; Elton Mayo and his associates concluded that the individuals’ productivity and work behavior is affected by social norms, group standards and attitude of people. Contemporary Approach: The earlier approaches to management were about inside management of organization that what was happening inside of the organizations. No one of the management approaches threw light on the importance of outer environment of organizations. Since 1960s the management researchers focused their concern towards the surroundings of organization that what was going on in the outer boundaries of the organization. Contemporary approach has two perspectives: • System Approach • Contingency Approach 1. System

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