Extraction is the process of separating substance from one phase by another phase. It is often used as one of the steps in isolating a product of an organic reaction. A separatory funnel would be used for the isolation from the mixture. A solvent will be used to remove or isolate a compound of interest from a liquid substance. In most cases, water was used as the solvent to the reaction mixture to dissolve the inorganic compound.
Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask.
Water and Sewage Microbiology: 1. List the steps of in a water purification plant. a. Screening to separate the large contaminants from the water b. Coagulation to attract small contaminants c. Sedimentation where water sits and finishes coagulation d. Filtration to remove any small remaining contaminants and particles e. Disinfection by disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine to kill microorganism or remaining bacteria 2.
The purpose of this experiment was to identify two unknowns and their ratios in a given mixture. The identities of the unknowns were two of either acetone, methanol, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, toluene, or ethyl benzene. Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid. Boiling points are utilized in determining the identity of the unknowns. Types of distillation include
We were given that a good solvent for recrystalizing trimyristin was acetone. Acetone was heated on a steam bath and added to the crude trimyristin to completely dissolve it. The solution was immediately cooled so that the trimyristin crystals formed in a mother liquor of impurities. The crystals vacuum filtered through a Büchner funnel and rinsed with ice cold acetone so only the impurities dissolved and pure crystals were left in the funnel. To finish, we dried the pure trimyristin crystals using a high vacuum pump, and 0.1470g remained with a 3.674% recovery from nutmeg, and a 15.186% recovery from crude
The recycled solvents have purities suitable for re-use. Fractional distillation is used to separate the crude oil into its various components such as gasoline, kerosene oil, diesel oil, paraffin wax, liberating oil. Fractional distillation is also used for the purification of water. Water contains many dissolved impurities; these can be removed by this process.
The resin that had stuck to the sides of the burette was washed down by pipetting extra pH 3 citrate buffer along the sides. The column was tapped to ensure that the settled resin formed a level surface. After all of the resin settled, the buffer was drained into a waster beaker until the level of the buffer reached the top surface of the resin. For the remainder of the experiment, the top surface of the resin was not allowed to dry
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
React ethanoic acid and 1-butanol under reflux with the presence of trace amount of concentrated sulfuric acid. In this step, the amount of 1-butanol and ethanoic acid used is the same so that a maximum 70% ester yield can be synthesised at the end of the experiment. After the reactants is accommodated in the reactant flask, the trace amount of concentrated sulfuric acid is added drops-by-drops into the reactant flask and the flask is swirled while adding the acid. Additional of concentrated sulfuric acid is to use as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction by donating a proton to the oxygen atom in carboxylic acid to allow for the mechanism for esterification and thus, the satisfactory yield of ester can be achieved.
3- Then add drops of an acyl chloride solution which was obtained from the first step. 4- Add HCl acid (acidizing agent) after completing the reaction. 5- layering; concentrating under a lower pressure, add residues into an alcohols solvent for dissolution, add drops of H2O to separate out flucloxacillin crystals
The chloroform and caffeine mixture was collected and into a conical flask labeled A. The remainder of the solution was discarded. This was repeated for beakers B and C. 9. Sodium sulphate was then added to each beaker to dry the liquid by getting rid of any remaining water from the solution. The sodium sulphate was then filtered and discarded.
Distillation usually works because organic compounds have boiling points which are different from each other. Usually a mixture of two compounds is placed in a round bottom flask. Heat is then applied to the mixture in the round bottom flask and as a result, the compound present in the mixture with the lower boiling point vaporizes first. The vapor then condenses in a condenser because the condenser has cool water to cool the vapor. The condensed vapor then travels into another flask at the other end of the distillation
Purpose and Techniques: This experiment has the aim to determine a chemical formula of hydrated compound, which ingrains cupper, chloride and water molecules in its structure. In order to find this hydrated compound, it is necessary to use the law of multiple proportions. In other word, finding the appropriate variables values to this compound (CxCly*zH2O). Additionally, two major steps are required to proceed the experiment.
The difference in this chemical and physical properties will aid in their separation. Processes like solubility, gravitational filtration and recrystallization will be used to separate the substances present in Panacetin. The melting and boiling point of the substances will help in concluding on which of these compounds will be presented at the end of experiment. Procedure and observation The Panacetin content was weighed approximately 3.0493g and transferred to the Erlenmeyer flask; 75ml of dichloromethane (CH¬2CL2) was added to the content. The dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) dissolved the sucrose, leaving the active unknown agent and aspirin behind.
Purpose This experiment is to determine the concentration of the solute copper sulfate pentahydrate, and the unknown solution, by passing different wavelengths of light through each solution. Procedure Weigh out approximately 5g of copper sulfate pentahydrate. Record the mass and place the solute into a 50 mL volumetric flask. Fill half of the flask with distilled water, add the stopper for the flask, and lightly shake the flask, until the copper sulfate pentahydrate fully dissolved.