2.9. Estimation of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 10 213 The concentration of H2O2 was determined by the method of Okuda et al (38). Fresh leaf 214 sample (0.5 g) was grounded in ice-cold 200 mM HClO4 and was then centrifuged at 215 1200 g for 10 min followed by neutralization of HClO4 of the supernatant with 4M KOH. 216 The insoluble KClO4 was eliminated by further centrifugation at 500g for 3 min. In a 217 total volume of 1.5 mL, the reaction mixture contained 1 mL of the eluate, 400 mL of 218 12.5 mM 3-(dimethylamino) benzoic acid in 0.375 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 80 mL 219 of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone and 20 mL of peroxidase (0.25 unit).
According to the simulated NMR spectra of CA, TA and saccharin by ACD-ilab software (34), hydroxyl functional groups of them have a single peak at ~10 ppm which in is upfield to ~6 ppm in ionized from whenever the first carboxylic acids was converted to carboxylate (COO−). In SAC, disappearance of a single peak at 8.1 ppm of saccharin confirm ionization of 1,2-benzisothiazole ring of SAC. CVD has no peak in the studied regions (8 ppm and ~6 ppm for ionized form of SAC and studied carboxylic acid, respectively). Similar spectra (Figure S1 in supplementary information) of CVD-CA and CVD-TA show the appearance of a peak at ~6 ppm. It established the ionization of the first carboxylic acid of CA and TA and salt formation.
Rose Bengal-(bis(aminoethyl)ethylene glycol) (2) from Rose Bengal disodium salt (1) The synthesis was done following procedure from . Rose Bengal Na+ salt (915 mg, 0.90 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (2ml) and DIPEA (0.312 ml, 1.80 mmol), HATU (308 mg, 0.81 mmol) were added. After activation for 15 min, the mixture was added to O-Bis-(aminoethyl)ethylene glycol trityl resin (309 mg, 0.31 mmol) preswollen in DMF for 2 hours. The coupling reaction wrapped in aluminum foil was allowed to proceed overnight on a nitrogen bubbler apparatus. The resulting red-burgundy coloured resin was filtered and washed well with DMF.
* In GO the Defect(D) peak and Graphitic(G) peak are seen at 1359 and 1586 cm-1 respectively. * Upon functionalisation there is no change in the defect peak but the G peak shows two fittings for the sp2 and sp3 hybridisation in graphene and fullerene respectively. * Also the G band is highly red shifted. * Appearance of 2D peak at 2795 cm-1 and G’peak at 2913 cm-1 due to large domain size of sp2 carbon network. * Further the ID/IG ratio of GO and PCBGO were compared to see the size of the sp2 domain in each and to compare.
This was proved by utilizing the IR spectrum to verify the C=O was not in the final product as it lacked the 1640 cm-1 peak. The melting point of 113-115 degrees C proved that the final product obtained was the E-Stilbene. The TLC plate proved that the E and the Z product was produced, show cased by the double intensity of the DCM spot to the final product’s spot, both which had an Rf of 0.92. The double intensity proved that both products were produced, but through heating and filtering, the Z-Stilbene was
This conclusion can be drawn because of celery’s large drop in pH and the data’s resemblance to the water data meaning celery cannot hydrolyze ions and keep a constant pH. Liver’s pH only changed by .47 which is not a dramatic change and can fall within scientific error and strongly relates to the alka seltzer data. Which, leads to the conclusion that liver does contain a buffer and is able to keep the same amount of hydrogen when acid is added. In conclusion, celery does not contain a buffer to keep pH constant and liver does have a buffer and can hydrolyze
2CO + O2→2CO2 -------------------- (1) The oxidation of CO was carried out under the following reaction conditions: 100mg of catalyst with feed gas consisting of a lean mixture of 2.5 vol.% CO in air and total flow rate is maintained 60 mL/min. The air feed into the reactor was made free from moisture and CO2 by passing through it CaO and KOH pellet drying towers. The catalytic experiment was carried out in steady state conditions and the reaction temperature was increased from room temperature to 200oC with a heating rate of
Materials and synthesis Poly (viny alcohol) (PVA) (99%, Mw. 1,15,000; Loba ) was dried in a hot air oven about 80 ºC at least 12 hours before to use. Poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) (Mw. 20,800; Sigma aldrich) (PEEK) pellets were dried at 100 ºC in hot air oven overnight before to the sulfonation process. Montmorillonite K10 (Na+MMT) (Himadia), Ion exchange resin (CDH), sulfuric acid (1.84 g cm-3, 98 wt%; Merck), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol were used as recieved.
5-aminotetrazole monohydrate: In a 250 ml round-bottom flask equipped with a condenser for refluxing (90 °C) and a magnetic stirring bar, 5.00 g (5.95 mmol) dicyandiamide (three times crystallized), 7.47 g (11.9 mmol) sodium azide and 11.00 g (17.8 mmol) boric acid and 100 ml of water is added and allowed to reflux for 24 hours, after the completion of the reaction, until the solution pH to about 2 to 3 as hydrochloric acid 37% is added (about 12 ml) Then the reaction mixture was cooled in a refrigerator for 18 hours and the white crystals formed. The mixture was filtered and washed three times with 10 ml of water and and dried in 60 °C for 5 hours and finally 45.8 g of product by it will be obtained. 5-Aminotetrazol monohydrate: Yield:,
Chapter 7 Results 7. RESULTS 7.1 PREFORMULATION STUDY 7.1.1 Organoleptic Characteristics Organoleptic Characteristics was visually determined which was compliance with the standard. Table 7: Organoleptic characteristic of naproxen Sr.no Properties Standard Observed 1 Appearance White crystalline White crystalline 2 Odor Odorless Odorless 43 Taste Bitter Bitter 7.1.2 Melting Point of Naproxen Melting point was determined by Thiele?s tube method. Melting point of naproxen was found to be in the range of 154?C which was in compliance with the official value. 7.1.3 Solubility of Naproxen Solubility of naproxen in different
32 100 μL of afore-prepared sample solution and the mixed reference standard were diluted 100 times with ethyl acetate. 50 μL of these dilution solutions were separated on the TLC plate coated with SNISG. The plate was developed with petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (4:1) and the movement of solvent was usually controlled at 1 cm from the upper edge. After completion, the plate was dried until no solvent smell remained. It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab).
15 mL of Solution A and B were mixed together to form solution F. Eight cuvettes were labeled distinctly as 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b, where “a” cuvettes were used for the concentration experiment and “b” cuvettes were used for the temperature experiment. Cuvette 1, the blank tube was prepared and the spectrophotometer was set to 405 nm. The enzyme was added, upon being ready to start the experiment, to tube 1 which then became tube “1a.” 3 mL of solution F was added to each cuvette, both “a” and “b.” The “b” cuvettes were then placed in their specific temperatures, 1b in the fridge, 2b in room temperature, 3b in a 32 degrees Celsius water bath and 4b in a 60 degree water bath. The temperature was recorded using a thermometer that was placed in the surroundings of the tube. The cuvettes were retrieved from their respected conditions.
In part C. pairs of compounds were investigated to determine whether the compounds were miscible or immiscible. Diethyl ether and methylene chloride, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol, water and ethyl alcohol, heptane and methyl chloride, and heptane and diethyl ether were all were found to be miscible each of these paired compounds showed a homogenous mixture with no chunks or particles left over when combined. On the other hand, water and heptane, water and methylene chloride, and water and diethyl ether were all immiscible, when mixed together it was observed that the compounds had two layers rather than one homogenous