Then the drug content was determined by comparing the absorbance of this solution with standard solution having same concentration. 6.4.8. In vitro drug release studies98: In-vitro release of zolpidem tartarte from pellet formulations was investigated by the Paddle method (Apparatus II). The dissolution medium was 500 mL of 0.01N HCl solution at 37 ± 0.5 °C and the rotating speed was 50 rpm. At certain time intervals, 1 ml of sample was withdrawn and immediately same amount of fresh medium (37±0.50C) was replaced.
Then percent yield was calculated to be 67.57%. The isolation of less product resulted from using less amount of acetanilide than 0.07g at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, the melting point of the product was measured to be 164.8-168.50c, which is in the range of the normal melting point of 4-bromoacentailide, 165-1690c. This confirmed the formation of 4-bromoacetanilide from the bromination of acetanilide. From the bromination of 0.05g aniline, 0.156g of the product was collected.
The literature melting point range of methyl trans-cinnamate is ~34-38oC (Aldrich).4 The obtained melting point of the crude was 34.5-35.5oC, which is a highly narrow range of less than 1oC difference and it also falls within the expected melting point range. Hence, the crystal lattice structure of the product is largely intact, requiring an even amount of thermal energy to melt the sample. The experimental melting point range indicates the crude product is relatively pure with minimal impurities. The percent yield was satisfactory, having a 68% yield. To optimize this yield, consider the steps in how the reagents are introduced to the reaction mixture in terms.
7: Zero order plot for optimized formulation Fig No 8: First order plot for optimized formulation Fig No 9: Higuchi plot for optimized formulation Fig No 10: Peppas plot for optimized formulation STABILITY STUDIES The stability studies were carried out according to the procedure described in the previous section. The results were shown in the table below: Table 2.1: % Entrapment efficiency and % Drug content after stability studies (T6) Number of Days % Entrapment Efficiency at temperatures % Drug Content at temperatures 4±2oC 25±2oC 37±2oC 4±2oC 25±2oC 37±2oC 15 88.5 87.82 88.83 93.6 93.1 93.6 30 87.3 86.71 88.05 93.1 92.5 92.6 90 87.0 86.18 87.70 92.6 92.7 91.2 SUMMARY The work was carried out to prepare Itraconazole transfersomal gel to achieve controlled release effect at the site of administration The pre-formulation studies like UV analysis of Itraconazole, FTIR were complied with BP standards. The FTIR spectra revealed that there were no interactions between the drug and the carriers. Transfersome formulations were prepared by thin film hydration technique and were incorporated into 2% carbopol gel. The Formulation T6 containing Lecithin: Span-80 in ratio 85:15(%w/w) has higher entrapment efficiency and maximum drug
Figure 5.2 TLC of methyl erucate [Solvent: chloroform: hexane (1:1)] Rf value = (Distance travelled by solute )/(Distance travelled by solvent front) = 5.1.5 Spectroscopy analysis using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) The infrared spectra of the purified methyl erucate showed the characteristics band at 1739 cm-1 which attributed to carbonyl ester band (Figure 5.3). The other absorptions attributed to the molecule are shown in Table 5.4. Also the IR absorption peak can be compared as shown in Figure 5.3 and Figure 5.4. Table 5.4 Spectroscopic identification of erucic acid functional groups in FTIR Absorption frequency range(cm-1) Absorption peak (cm-1) Type of vibration 3020-3100 2920 =C-H stretch of alkene 2850-3000 2852 C-H stretch of alkane 1705-1720 1710 C=O stretch of acid 1350-1480 1452 -CH bend of alkane 1210-1320 1284 C-O stretch of acid 675-1000 931 =C-H bend of alkene 720-725 721 C-H rock of alkane Figure 5.3 FTIR spectra of erucic
Solubility: The solubility of the drug sample was carried out in different solvents (aqueous and organic) according to I.P. The results are then compared with those mentioned in the official books and Indian Pharmacopoeia. Melting point The melting point of Itraconazole was determined by capillary method using digital melting point apparatus. ANALYTICAL METHODS STANDARD CURVE Preparation of standard solution: 100mg of itraconazole was accurately weighed into 100ml volumetric flask and dissolved in small quantity of buffer. The volume was made with 6.8 pH Phosphate buffer to get a concentration of 1000µg/ml (SS-I).
The melting point of the experimentally synthesized Aspirin product was found to be between 126-129 ˚C. This temperature range of initial to final melting point has a small and sharp temperature range of only 3˚C, which is within the acceptable limits of the 128-137˚C1 literature value for Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid/2-acetoxybenzoic acid), if located slightly toward the beginning of the literature melting temperature range. Therefore, the narrow melting point range, which falls within the standard literature value range results, indicate the reliability purity of the sample. Had the melting point been higher than the literature value, but maintained a sharp melting point range, the compound could have still indicated a pure sample. A lower
The use of TG-FITR was applied so that the degradation temperature and the component generated at that stage can be trace. Figure 3a shows the pristine POM starts showing the formaldehyde peak (CH2O at 1745 cm-1 and 2800 cm-1) at 289 C. As POM-B05A10 was prepared under the condition that POM was molten, the consideration of POM degradation had better reply on the POM after melting, so-called the thermal treated POM, than the pristine POM. Figure 3b shows the thermal treated POM starts to generate formaldehyde at 251C which is much lower than the pristine POM. This implies the ease of formaldehyde generation if the pristine POM was once thermally treated.
Formaldehyde Rumus Molekul : CH2O Fase : gas Berat Molekul : 30.026 gr/mol Nama Lain : formol, metal aldehida, oksida metilena Warna : tidak berwarna Normal boiling Point : -19.2 0C Freezing Point : -117.2 0C Temperatur Kritis : 408.0 K Tekanan Kritis : 65.9 bar Volume Kritis : - Densitas Liquid : 815 Kg/m3 Heat Capacities : 23.475 + 31.568 x 10-3T + 29.852 x10-6T2 - 2.300x10-8T3(Cp dalam J/mol.Kdan T dalam K) Panas Pembentukan (250C) : -115.97 KJ/mol Gibbs energy (250C) : -109.99 KJ/mol e. Ethylene Rumus Molekul : C2H4 Fase : Berat Molekul : 28.064 gr/mol Nama Lain : Warna : Normal boiling Point : -103.8 0C Freezing Point : -169.2 0C Temperatur Kritis : 282.4 K Tekanan Kritis : 50.4 bar Volume Kritis : 0.129 m3/mol Densitas Liquid : 577 Kg/m3 Heat Capacities : 3.806 + 15.659 x 10-2T – 8.348 x10-5T2 + 17.551x10-9T3(Cp dalam J/mol.Kdan T dalam K) Panas Pembentukan (250C) : 52.33 KJ/mol Gibbs energy (250C) : 68.16
Chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically (Spekol Π at wave-lengths 452, 650 and 665 nm) and calculated according to (Mackinney, 1941). Reducing and non–reducing sugars were extracted from 5 g crude dried material of the 3rd terminal leaf using 70% ethanol and kept overnight at room temperature according to (Kayani et al., 1990) and then was filtered and recorded as total soluble sugar content. Contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were determined in leaves. The samples were taken at 75 days from transplanting. The leaves were washed with distilled water and oven dried at 70ᵒ C until the constant reached.