Penicillin, is the first antibiotic that is medically used to fight off a large range of bacterial infection. For this experiment, we will be using ampicillin, it is a part of the penicillin drug group. The ampicillin inhibits the bacteria with the result of killing the bacterium or prevents it from multiplying. “When a bacterium multiplies, small holes open up in their cell walls as the daughter cells divide.
After lawn inoculating a Meuller Hinton plate and placing the samples of medication, the plate was then incubated for one week at 37 degrees Celsius. The first medication choice was Trimethoprim, this produced a zone of inhibition of 16mm, therefore being sensitive to the bacteria. Antibiotic number two was nalidixic acid, this too, has a zone of inhibition of 16mm but is considered intermediate. The next antibiotic was erythromycin which produced a zone of inhibition of zero and was therefore resistant. The last antibiotic that was chosen to be used in the experiment was ciprofloxacin.
Aseptic technique was initiated at the beginning of this experiment by cleaning the work surface with disinfected wipes. Personal protectives equipment was also worn. The material utilized in this experiment was: S. epidermidis culture broth, sterile cotton swab, streak plate, forceps in 70% alcohol, a lit tea light, and the three antibiotic disks (novobiocin, gentamicin, penicillin). The first step, I divided a plate into three quadrants and labelled them with the different antibiotic names. Using the lit tea light, like a bursen burner, I flamed the mouth of the S. epidermidis culture.
This led to the development and use of a penicillinase resistant beta-lactam antibiotic, including oxacillin and flucloxacillin. Combination therapy with gentamicin can also be used to treat more serious infections, but it can have a high risk of kidney
The introduction of penicillin during a time of war was a considerable advantage, the drug saved the lives of countless soldiers that would have died of infectious diseases or infected wounds in the war, or from post-war injuries (Friedman, Meyer, and Friedland 178). Some historians believe that the introduction and availability of penicillin during World War I was a direct factor in the Allied victory (“Penicillin”). This is because Germans lost a substantial amount of soldiers, as a result of infection. They may have had an improved chance at winning if a great deal of their troops had not died of infection (“Penicillin”). The Allied side had access to the penicillin when it was discovered, so most of their soldiers did not die from infection (“Penicillin”).
PHAR 100 Assignment 3 1. Antibiotics are a form of medicine that seek out and destroy the bacteria that make us feel sick. Antibiotics work great against bacteria, however they don’t work against viruses. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming, and it was first used to treat infections. Essentially, these powerful medicines fight bacterial infections, and have the potential to save lives.
Although the nature of this kind experiment was unable to provide us with numerical data, our graph was constructed using the average percent of E. Coli killed for each pair of cultures. To determine these percents for each substance we used the process of elimination. We put the two petri dishes side by side and used a checklist ranging from 1-100% to narrow down the possibilities. After obtaining a small range of possible percents, we made an estimate to determine the percent. After doing this for both the of cultures for that pair we averaged the two numbers.
Unknown Lab Report Mikee Lianne Gonzales Biol 351- 1005 Holly Martin Unknown: # 76 Abstract This report is about identifying the respective genus of the given unknown organism. The goal is to show and prove the student’s understanding of microbiology and laboratory learned experimental techniques.
Unknown Lab Report Unknown # 25 By: Jenna Riordan March 19, 2018 Bio 2843 1. Introduction Microbiology is the study of microorganisms found in all different environments throughout Earth, from the hot thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean to the ice at the top of a mountain.
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
Prokaryotic organisms normally have a cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and sometimes a capsule. Bacterial cells are most commonly either coccus or bacillus in shape. The cell wall is either Gram positive or Gram negative. When the cell is Gram negative, the cell has an extra layer of lipopolysaccharides. The Gram positive has a thick layer of peptidoglycan. Bacteria usually have capsules, but archaea rarely have one. Inside the prokaryote is cytoplasm and a nucleoid. The nucleus is not enclosed inside of a membrane in prokaryotes. The cell may have appendages to adhere to certain surfaces or for motility. The prokaryotic cell is smaller than the eukaryotic cell and has different qualities that make the cell less complex than a eukaryotic cell.
The Another medium used was MAC, it is used to isolate and differentiate gram-negative organisms and it is a pink, dusty rose color. Lastly, the Citrate Slant is a green color and it was used as a differential test to examine enzymes. The media were inoculated at 37°C for 48 hours, then it was observed to determine the