One is not under control of the master, there is no prophet telling you the truth, but a teacher enacting in a discourse—the logos. In an interview with Rux Martin, in 1982, Foucault sees himelf as a “teacher”, and not a prophet of truth, and I think this is an important connection in his liking for Stoicism (8). Foucault doesn’t believe it is in his job to say ‘do this or do that’ but to offer a tool for ones own resistance. In his lectures entitled ‘Security, Territory, and Population’ he states, “If you want to struggle, here are some key points, here are some lines of force, here are some constrictions and blockages.’ (1977, 18). This is paralleled to the way in which the Stoics take the truth of the teachings from the teacher and retreat to apply their own subjective rules of conduct (Foucault 1988, 35).
Meursault is part of a functioning group, yet is disconnected with his different ideals. His differentiation generates narrow-mindedness, motivating his peers to reject that behavior. However, without this variation within a society, there would be no example to look upon. Meursault’s existence as the stranger creates the society’s standards, ones that he is not included in. The process of estrangement and realization in which Meursault experiences can be seen through the varying aspects of his point of view during vital events in the novel.
In contemporary Western civilizations, however, Foucault perceived that the process of sexual discourse has developed into profanation, i.e. the lack of any sacredness regarding sex (cf. Rungo 228-31).
Foucault says that, once we assume the idea of "author" as an individual creator, what do we think by "work". Foucault realized writing as interplay of signs arranged less according to its signified content than according to very nature of the signifier. As Foucault wrote: “that today’s writing has freed itself from the theme of expression”. He said that a writer's individuality is removed by writing, and with this idea he turned the literature into discourse because we see "author," as the function of language and become a part of the structure of texts. As he claimed: “Perhaps it is time to study discourses not only in terms of their expressive value or formal transformations but according to their modes of existence.
Foucault in order to study the structures of society and social reality he made use of the role of discourse and language in shaping the same. Foucault focused on social reality and the underlying truth in it. He has used main elements like discourse, language, power, knowledge and truth in understanding the existing truth in it. As per the writings and thoughts of Foucault (1977), he connects discourse with knowledge and mentioned that it is through this we are created; and discourse acts as a catalyst between power and knowledge using language as a medium of force. Thus it will be more clear with the below figure representing
Voltaire’s Different Perspectives from Zadig, Candide, and Micromegas Voltaire was a versatile artist whose literary works covered plays, philosophy, history, and poetry. He was an enlightenment preacher who uses his novellas to preach his ideology. In most of his philosophical works, Voltaire had different perspectives that triggered his philosophical reasoning. I could not help myself from comparing and contrasting those different perspectives from three major philosophical works of Voltaire that is, Micromegas, Candide, and Zadig. The three books somehow relate to their criticism of philosophical paradigms, but Micromegas is more scientific than the other two.
Furthermore, Foucault dismisses the idea that current discourses have a merit of coherence. He explains that we think of them as existing because of a sophisticated set of practices that ensure their circulation and other practices that try to exclude other discourses to keep them out of circulation (Foucault 1981). Foucault identifies in the above mentioned work, “The order of discourse”, three external procedures of exclusion, namely, taboo, the distinction between mad and sane, and the distinction between true and
However, like many great people, their good deeds shadow their bad deeds. The article is a collection of what philosophy was about and also shows the pros and cons of his thoughts of Enlightenment. The body tries to balance the contrasting elements in Voltaire’s philosophy in contrast, source 2 which only focuses on Voltaire’s originality. For example the source (3) mentions how he enlightened many about the feudal system that oppressed them, and how there should be more interest in the people rather than the monarchy. The author of the source further cites a contrasting view by mentioning that Voltaire believed that the black race was inferior to the white race.
Analysis of Theoretical Perspectives of Michel Foucault Foucault was a twentieth century French philosopher and historian who received his early education at local schools and then at Catholic school. His father was a physician and he was brought up in a bourgeois family. He studied philosophy and psychology at Ecole Normale Superieure where he was introduced to Marxist structure. Life at Ecole was difficult for him as he suffered from depression and even attempted suicide. He was taken to the psychiatrist and maybe because of this he became fascinated with psychology.