Paul-Michael Foucault theories primarily addressed the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as an outline of social control through societal institutions. However, he does not have any exact clarification or tenet in regards to power. His thought is brimming with logical inconsistencies; he adores to manage contention and resistances toward with his own particular logic and methodologies. He argues numerous points in relation to puissance (French word means power) and offers definitions that are specifically contradicted to more conventional liberal and Marxist hypotheses of energy. Foucault makes some shockingly solid claims about power, which may even appear to be conflicting, both with another principal guarantee
Two major works, The History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality by Sigmund Freud try to piece together sexuality and its meaning to society through analysis and observation. Sexuality isn’t new; it’s been real but has been forced into repression based on the fact that it defies heteronormative standards. Sexuality’s connection to social theory and social relations is one that is defined by the influences of social hierarchies on the definition of sexuality and the way that we view it. In The History of Sexuality, Foucault posits that society’s views on sex and sexuality shifted dramatically over the course of a few centuries. His argument doesn’t neglect the fact that same-sex desires or relationships were new; his findings revealed that sexual desire runs deeper than just sex.
As we can see, modern factories, schools, military barracks, hospitals and prisons are to some extent similar to each other; this is what Foucault calls “the advent of disciplinary society”. Moreover, power is a relationship and network. Traditional theory of power supposed power is an ability or resource which can be competed, transferred. Foucault claims that it is a relationship, this power can be seen in the flow of the process cycle, especially hierarchical observation mentioned in the book. Power is produced in the relation network.
Foucault’s work on asylums and insanity allows for a different and unique take on the evolution of the modern self. In his 1977 work, ‘Discipline and Punish’, Foucault breaks down and analyses the connections that exists between power and knowledge. He examines these connections in relation to those in charge, which due to societal circumstances are deemed in power over the masses as they exert and impress their form of identity onto those over whom they are in control. The social construction of sexuality revitalises an even stronger argument for cultural identity and its link to power and overwhelmingly dominant discourses. Social and cultural identities are shaped in relation to the norms and value systems within a society.
Power Scholars and researchers have been fascinated with power that they repeatedly define and describe it for years. Michael Foucault, a postmodernist philosopher, has been one of the most influential figures in the study of power. His theory of power breaks away from the conventional notion of power which are negative, hierarchical and centralized to the state (Guinote and Vescio 2010; Daldal 2014; Larkin 2011; powercube.net). For Foucault, "power is everywhere and comes from everywhere" (powercub.net; routledgesoc.com). He sees power as pervasive and dispersed in "every grains of individuals".
The social theories that I have chosen to focus on are Conflict Theory and Feminist Theory. I have decided to study these concepts as they share both similar and contradictory ideas of sport participation and power in sport. I will also explore the topic of disability and sport in an attempt to illustrate the great need for integration of athletes with disabilities into mainstream clubs and teams. Finally, I will investigate the area of sexuality and sport, a subject which I believe has remained very much concealed until recent times. Conflict theory states that “social order is based on economic interests and the use of economic power to exploit labour”.
Robert Bierstadt’s ‘An Analysis of Social Power’ is written to “clarify the meaning of the concept … and seek the sources of social power itself.” His first point is to separate power from dominance. Observation “power is a sociological, dominance a psychological concept” reveals that Bierstadt believes power is in social interactions whereas dominance is a mental belief that someone holds power over you. Also, opinion “power is not force” but “power itself is the predisposition of or prior capacity which makes the application of force possible… power is the ability to employ force” his example “your money or your life” exposes that force is different from power and it is the threat of the use of force that is power not force itself. Leading
It begins with a literature review which aims to establish comprehensive parameters to analyze the case. 1.1.1. The concept of Power: Result from the debates As many researchers argue, power might be one of the most interesting concepts in the social sciences. This is not only because power is contested and arguable in terms of its definition but also because power can be viewed from different disciplines. The conflict among scholars
Studying Michel Foucault’s analysis of power relations one can notice that the French philosopher argues about a shift in the way power functions. Power is not visible anymore, since we have no kings or princes to behead. This makes power even more dangerous than it was before, as you cannot actually see it and consequently you believe that there is nothing to resist to. Foucault introduces the notion of panopticism, a theory that speaks about the unseen eye of power that regulates our behaviour. This means that we end up doing, thinking and behaving in a certain way because we believe someone is watching us.
This eight section article outlines the general patterns Michel Foucault uses to explain femininity and the modernization of power dynamics. The works goes through describing the disciplinary practices modern societies use to construct femininity and how this inflicts an inferior status on those being targeted. This power dynamic aims at regulation which is perpetual and exhaustive. The disciplines described in this piece are the ways in which society boxes women. These concepts are created to target women and submit them into working towards achieving an unattainable standard of beauty.