To the untrained eye, a story could be viewed one-dimensionally; a tale might only appeal to emotion while logic is left out in the cold. Equally, logic may be forgotten while emotion is heavily focused on. However, through the use of Critical Lenses, readers can begin to see greater depth in literature. As readers find connections through Critical Lenses, they become more educated on various topics, more aware of social, political, and even logical abstractions. Instead of failing to retain the intent and content of the material, they even can remember details of stories more vividly when truly examining literature rather than reading it once for entertainment (or chore).
Egan explains that there are different types of narration within the text that all serve their own purposes and make the Zuo zhuan unique to other texts and historically valuable. While Confucius and other contributors to the Chunqiu are more forward in their narration of their own values and moral standings, the narrator of the Zuo zhuan takes a much more furtive approach, where he attempts to utilize the characters within the story to accurately express history and his opinions. This brings us to his first narrative technique, which Egan describes as “silence of the narrator” where “as the author removes himself from overt control and interpretation of his material, his covert manipulation must increase.” The Zuo zhuan includes numerous scenes of battles and historically notable conversations between war figureheads, which are included because of their significance and the lessons to be learned from them. However, the author of the Zuo zhuan only offers simple introductions and essential background information before describing historical events. The lessons and values of these events lie within the dialogue, speeches, and events themselves, as “it is rare that the cause or significance of an event is specifically identified.” Therefore, only provided with necessary historical data, it is up to the reader to come to conclusions about the significance of the material in the Zuo zhuan, which is arguably more meaningful than being directly explained or told what to gather from reading, like in the Chunqiu
Such cross-references widen the fictional world, helping to create a more vivid picture, perhaps prompting the reader to embark on an investigation or think on the interpretations. Thus, intertextuality enables the reader to transgress the mental boundaries of a simple information consumer, but rather encourages an individual and informed response. Being the texts that were written before digitization, they prove that non-linearity had existed in the author’s minds long before hypertextuality. To continue, Landow presents two models of non-linear structures. The first one, as noted before, is rather a structure of an intertextual literature, where there is a direct path, which could branch out at some points, but then return you back to the narrative flow.
When describing events, Fagles translation, which is for more advanced readers, goes into every last detail of the situation by using literary devices and descriptive words. Mccaughrean on the other hand does not like to show the details, and just summarizes because her books are written for less advanced readers. Fagles’ translation tells the story much more effectively than Mccaughrean’s. Fagles’ story is told more effectively because his showing really helps the reader understand what’s going on in the
Each of it goes through ups and down, but at the end of the day they all have a story to share. If we closely look at a society we can possibly make an instruction manual on what is the right and wrong way of running a society. It is not possible to predict how our society may turn out to but we have societies to look up to and we can adapt and modify those qualities which is best suited for us. Confucius and Han Fei are two Chinese philosophers whose works have been widely read and implemented. They both had a peculiar view on their society and how to order society.
According to the American Institute of Social Research, the Vietnamese people have 10 major characteristics. The fifth characteristic listed is Vietnamese people love knowledge and have quick understanding but hardly learn from the beginning to the end of things, so their knowledge is not systemic or fundamental. In addition, Vietnamese people do not study just for the sake of knowledge (when small, they study because of their families; growing up, they study for the sake of prestige or good jobs). Actually, these are two assumptions contained both positive and negative sides. It is difficult to appraise exactly knowledge of one person, not to mention knowledge of a nation.
However, with symptomatic reading, the critic must take into account the issues in society, whether it be pollution, slavery or even women’s rights. Surface reading can be viewed as a more scholarly method of criticism (Williams Jeffrey,) due to the fact it allows readers to understand more about the cultural aspect of literature. By analysing literary techniques, such as allusions, alliteration, onomatopoeia and so on, the critic can become emerged in history, simply by observing the form of a text. On the other hand, symptomatic reading forces the critic to act as a detective (Williams Jeffrey.) They must broaden their understanding of
Westerners may find these questions invasive. In Western societies, questions like this would not be asked; simply saying “hello, how are you?” suffices. There is no distinction between formal and informal greetings in China, however, in Western societies, it is polite to shake hands in formal situations. Etiquette is another dissimilarity. In China, knives and forks aren’t popular, chopsticks are used and bowls are picked up off the table.
In the first phase, the researchers did not intervene in any violations and found that the compliance with smoke free zones was a mere thirty-three percent. This data correlates with the results from the Seitz study as it shows that there is a lack of compliance with a passive form of smoking policy. However, in the next phase of the study, the researchers intervened by adding clearly marked non-smoking areas with more signs and by having people intervene with smokers, giving them cards that reflected whether they were in compliance with policies. In this phase, there was a near reversal of the results with seventy-seven percent of smokers following the campuses policies. Having a well defined nonsmoking area discourages people from breaking these rules, leading to a healthier campus with less secondhand smoking.
In contrast to that, various examples have legitimized the use of first-person pronouns in English academic writing. Also, second person pronouns remarkably demonstrate the presence of informality in any given piece of academic writing. The second person pronouns create much of a conversation than the unintended academic writing (Biber et al. 32).this is ideally because it evokes interactional skills. In some cases, writers may use the second person pronoun with a semantic reference that is wider, concerning people in general.