et al. 2017). Since the first uses of penicillin, there have been numerous cases of resistance towards the antibiotic penicillin. The bacteria associated with penicillin, has originated from rare and naturally resistant varieties that had prevented the killing of the bacteria and as a result, making the drug ineffective. The resistance towards penicillin was due to the high number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria present which had a greater chance of survival over the bacteria that was not resistant, therefore being preserved and eventually causing a mutation in the bacteria not already resistant to penicillin (De
Antibiotic, a chemical substance produced by micro-organisms which has the capacity, in dilute solution, to inhibit the growth of or destroy other micro-organisms (A. Porteous, 2008). Antibiotics are used to treat and control infectious diseases in the human body, animals, and even
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
Although highly controversial when first proposed, the germ theory was validated in the late 19th century and is now a fundamental part of modern medicine and clinical microbiology leading to such important innovations as antibiotics and hygienic practices. According to Louis Pasteur, germs or microbes cause disease and these germs invade the body from the outside through air, water or the food that we take in. The human blood is sterile and can only be infected by outside microbes; these germs are monomorphic, that is, they have only one form and can be identified by species. Thus, specific diseases are caused by specific germs. This theory led to the development of pharmaceutical drugs that can kill these germs or
In addition, phages can also overcome host resistance mutations. However, they can be eliminated by the body's defense mechanisms. Phage therapy has been used as an alternative to antibiotics. The use of natural phages to treat bacterial infection has very known history in the western medicine. Antibiotics are one of the most successful forms of chemotherapy in the history of medicine.
influenzae and some enterobacteria like E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. These bacteria do not produce β-lactamase Ceftazidime is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Some of these third-generation cephalosporin drugs have poor activity against gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Ceftibuten and cefixime only have slight activity against S. aureus, so if it is used for infections in the skin and soft-tissues, it should be limited to uncomplicated streptococcal infections.
Radiation therapy is often used with chemotherapy and is performed before an operation. Radiation therapy is helpful for people with bone cancer that cannot be removed with surgery. It can also be used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancer cells(Bone Cancer - Symptoms and causes). In conclusion, bone cancer is a serious disease that has many different types, variants, and treatment options.
This allows for an infection to stay in the tube for a much longer time. The infection occurs mostly after a viral infection has lowered the immune system and has inflamed and obstructed the eustachian tube. This allows bacteria to infect the nasopharynx and move its way into the eustachian tube because of the shape of the tube in children allowing backflow to occur. The main culprits for bacterial infection are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.3 These bacteria make their way into the middle ear and can stay there and replicate.
There exists a vaccine for Varicella, it allows people to prevent this disease and prevent their deaths. Vaccines take over the duty of natural selection and replace it effectively. (Pearson) Medicine is able to cure diseases through a single shot or treatment. It has given us
Major Quest Outline Name: Madison Underwood Thesis: Bacteria is becoming resistant to antibiotics and will eventually cause an apocalypse. Body: I. Understanding antibiotic resistance is vital in understanding the argument. A.
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacteria resistant to all antibiotics containing penicillin. MRSA otherwise known as a superbug has been produced through the process of natural selection inside hospitals, which provide the perfect environment for this bacteria to thrive in. Bacteria like MRSA are hard to treat as there are fewer antibiotics to treat it therefore increasing its deadliness. The antimicrobial resistance in MRSA is genetically based, meaning that it can spread its immunity amongst other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. MRSA is a bacteria that can withstand antibiotics containing penicillins.
It role in pathogenicity is not welly understood yet, however this toxin was present in severe outbreaks of C. difficile that has high rates of morbidity. C. difficile has the presence of an attachment pilus, called fimbriae, which allows it to adhere more strongly to the mucosa cells. Lastly, another virulence factor of this bacterium is that it produces a capsule, which help cause
Inflammation is the main type of innate immunity our body uses against A. schmiddy. Inflammation begins by activating acute-phase proteins, and soon after vasodilation occurs, followed by redness, swelling, pain, and heat. Once vasodilation occurs, histamine and kinins are released and blood vessels permeability is increased, causing white blood cells to report to the infected area. One problem associated with inflammation is that the capsule of A. schmiddy is an important virulence factor, which helps the bacteria to resists phagocytosis. Because the phagocytes cannot destroy the bacteria cells, infection further continues and necrotic tissue forms.
PHAR 100 Assignment 3 1. Antibiotics are a form of medicine that seek out and destroy the bacteria that make us feel sick. Antibiotics work great against bacteria, however they don’t work against viruses. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming, and it was first used to treat infections. Essentially, these powerful medicines fight bacterial infections, and have the potential to save lives.