The evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria, is the consequence of the overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals (Knoppel, A,. et al. 2017). Since the first uses of penicillin, there have been numerous cases of resistance towards the antibiotic penicillin. The bacteria associated with penicillin, has originated from rare and naturally resistant varieties that had prevented the killing of the bacteria and as a result, making the drug ineffective.
Fleming did not plan on revolutionizing medicine, but he did and it made one of the biggest impacts in medicine. Antibiotic, a chemical substance produced by micro-organisms which has the capacity, in dilute solution, to inhibit the growth of or destroy other micro-organisms (A. Porteous, 2008). Antibiotics are used to treat and control infectious diseases in the human body, animals, and even
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
The spores of Clostridium difficile are resistant to alcohol and most hospital disinfectants and are most commonly spread by the a fecal-oral route from the hands of the health care workers (usually after handling rectal thermometers) then to patients or patients environment. Acinetobacter spp. is said to be commonly spread due to environmental contamination from door knobs, computer keyboards, sinks, countertops surrounding infected
The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Although highly controversial when first proposed, the germ theory was validated in the late 19th century and is now a fundamental part of modern medicine and clinical microbiology leading to such important innovations as antibiotics and hygienic practices. According to Louis Pasteur, germs or microbes cause disease and these germs invade the body from the outside through air, water or the food that we take in. The human blood is sterile and can only be infected by outside microbes; these germs are monomorphic, that is, they have only one form and can be identified by species. Thus, specific diseases are caused by specific germs.
In addition, phages can also overcome host resistance mutations. However, they can be eliminated by the body's defense mechanisms. Phage therapy has been used as an alternative to antibiotics. The use of natural phages to treat bacterial infection has very known history in the western medicine. Antibiotics are one of the most successful forms of chemotherapy in the history of medicine.
influenzae and some enterobacteria like E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. These bacteria do not produce β-lactamase Ceftazidime is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Some of these third-generation cephalosporin drugs have poor activity against gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Ceftibuten and cefixime only have slight activity against S. aureus, so if it is used for infections in the skin and soft-tissues, it should be limited to uncomplicated streptococcal infections. The following cephalosporins in this class are used for many clinical conditions: Oral medications Cefixime
Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often used with chemotherapy and is performed before an operation. Radiation therapy is helpful for people with bone cancer that cannot be removed with surgery. It can also be used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancer cells(Bone Cancer - Symptoms and causes). In conclusion, bone cancer is a serious disease that has many different types, variants, and treatment options.
The infection occurs mostly after a viral infection has lowered the immune system and has inflamed and obstructed the eustachian tube. This allows bacteria to infect the nasopharynx and move its way into the eustachian tube because of the shape of the tube in children allowing backflow to occur. The main culprits for bacterial infection are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.3 These bacteria make their way into the middle ear and can stay there and replicate. The horizontal shape of the tube doesn’t allow for clearance of any fluid or possible bacteria in the ear and therefore takes longer for the infection to clear.3
Varicella, or colloquially Chicken Pox, is a very contagious and deadly disease. It causes a variety of symptoms and can lead to rapid excruciating death. There exists a vaccine for Varicella, it allows people to prevent this disease and prevent their deaths. Vaccines take over the duty of natural selection and replace it effectively. (Pearson) Medicine is able to cure diseases through a single shot or treatment.