Extraction is the process of separating substance from one phase by another phase. It is often used as one of the steps in isolating a product of an organic reaction. A separatory funnel would be used for the isolation from the mixture. A solvent will be used to remove or isolate a compound of interest from a liquid substance. In most cases, water was used as the solvent to the reaction mixture to dissolve the inorganic compound.
When preparing an ester (an organic compound) the reactants are heated together under reflux so any material that evaporates is condensed and returned to the mixture. The mixture is then distilled to separate the product. A reflux apparatus: A distillation apparatus: Preparation and testing of an organic liquid Preparing and testing an organic liquid for purification has 3 distinct parts to it: Reflux, Separation and Distillation. Reflux and Distillation reactions must be carried out in a fume cupboard to avoid toxic vapours from escaping and must also be allowed time to boil and reflux/distil. Safety measures:
This fluid then flows into the loop of Henle and to the collecting ducts. Substances are removed through diffusion, active transport, and osmosis. The filtered substances go into the renal veins and back into the circulatory system. Third Step: Tubular Secretion. This process helps to eliminate toxins from the body.
Also refer to section 4 (discussion). Calcium phosphate is found in teeth and bones. Alum is used for the sedimentation tank in water treatment places because alum addition leads to flocculate the charged colloidal particles. For alum-precipitation, the aluminum phosphate from the wastewater would have bacteria and viruses. When phosphate from wastewater is used, the main problem is that there will be microbiological hazards so the plants and animals can be contaminated from that alum-precipitation.
Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask. Equipment • Filter paper • Buhner funnel • Tubing • Clean solvent • Disposable dropper Method 1.
All You Need To Know About Chelation Therapy Content: You may have read about it and wondered that what’s chelation therapy? Chelation therapy is usually a chemical course of action in which an artificial solution-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-is injected into the bloodstream of a patient to eliminate heavy metals and minerals from the human body. Chelation implies to grab something.” When EDTA is injected in a patient’s veins, it catches heavy metals and minerals for example iron, calcium, aluminium, arsenic, copper, mercury and lead, and then eliminate them from the body. Other than as a cure for lead poisoning, Chelation therapy is a bit controversial topic among experts. You should also keep in mind that chelation therapy is always done on an outpatient basis.
The kidneys remove waste products like excess salts, toxins and urea (a nitrogenous based compound that is produced after deamination) from the blood and they balance water and the body fluids. The kidneys get their blood from the aorta through the renal arteries and it passes through a structure in it called nephrons which extracts waste from
When processing onions they are brought from harvesting and stored in ambient conditions until the irradiation takes place, they are then conveyed into an irradiation chamber with thick concrete walls ensuring no rays escape, and the gamma ray source is taken out of the water pool. The onions are then exposed to a low dose (up to 1kGy) of gamma rays, known as radurization, which can inhibit insects and parasite reproduction and inhibit rotting therefore extending shelf life. The onions are then conveyed out of the irradiated chamber to be
It is to prevent the cell from washing away during the staining and washing process. Then, it is air dried and followed by fixing it with flame from Bunsen burner. After fixing the smear, it must be stained using Gram staining solution, firstly crystal violet solution was flood onto it, and allowed for 1 minute, then wash off with tap water. Then, flood the slide with iodine solution for 1 minute and wash it off with tap water again. The formation of a dye-iodine complex will occur in the cytoplasm.
Food irradiation is a technology that can be safely used to reduce food losses due to deterioration and to control contamination causing illness and death. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating the sources of radiation that are used to irradiate food. Radiation is energy in transit either as electromagnetic waves or high-speed particles. These kinds of radiation are also referred as ionizing radiation because their energy levels are high enough to dislodge electrons from atoms and molecules and to convert them to electrically charged particles called ions (DOH, 2000). Food irradiation uses radiant energy to rid food of harmful microorganisms, insects, fungi and other pests to retard spoilage.